Open Access Case Report

Interference by Human Anti-mouse Antibodies in Immunoassays: Falsely Elevated Cardiac Troponins Leading to Negative Coronary Angiograms

Mian Bilal Alam, Surachit Kumar, Ibrahim Sbietan, K. M. Anwar Hussain, Mehwish Asad, Asif N. Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 323-327
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11941

Cardiac Troponins are an extremely important indicator of myocardial injury and American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include Cardiac Troponins as one of the major diagnostic criteria for myocardial damage. However in some instances the presence of heterophilic antibodies like Human Anti-Mouse Antibodies (HAMA) may interfere with the sandwich assays used for the detection and quantification of cardiac troponins giving false results which can have a major impact on the management of an individual suspected to have myocardial injury.
We present a case of a 56 year old Caucasian male who had negative coronary angiogram 2 years ago presenting with acute chest pain and significantly elevated levels of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). He underwent cardiac catheterization which again turned out to be completely normal. His cTnI levels continued to be consistently elevated for months after cardiac catheterization. The reason for elevated cTnI levels was due to high levels of HAMA antibodies that caused heterophilic antibody interference in the assay of cTnI, resulting in falsely elevated levels of cTnI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Energy Drink on Sperm Morphology, Haematological Parametres and Behaviour of Adult Male Mice

F. Olaleru, P. G. C. Odeigah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 288-296
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13573

With the rising popularity of energy drink among Nigerian youths and males especially, there is the need to investigate the possible side effect of its major constituent, caffeine on reproductive and health related issues. To test the reproductive, health, and other effects of energy drink, increasing concentration of Red Bull® was offered ad libitum to adult male mice for twenty eight days. The Control, Treatment 1 was offered 100% water. Treatments 2-5 were offered 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Red Bull®, respectively. Sperm head abnormally counts and haematological parameters were carried out at 7, 14, and 28 days of exposure, while body movements studies of the mice were conducted on the last five days of energy drink exposure. The study showed that mice offered 75% concentration of Red Bull for 14-28 days had significantly (P<0.05) negative effects on sperm head abnormalities. The percent abnormal sperm head for Treatments 1-5 were 1.82, 8.07, 12.40, 15.46 and 21.81 respectively. Haematological parameters that were most affected were the mean corpuscular haemaglobin concentration and platelets. The number of body movements increased with increasing concentration of Red Bull®. These results could imply that exposure to energy drink should be at low concentration and not for long period so that it does not have negative reproductive, haematological and behavioural outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Routinely Oxytocin Injection to Induce Milk Ejection on Some Reproductive Parameters of Crossbred Cows in the Tropics of Veracruz

M. A. Lammoglia, B. Domínguez Mancera, M. A. Alarcón, A. Cabrera, A. I. Daniel

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 297-303
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15902

The objective was to assess the effects of routine intramuscular injection ofoxytocin in crossbred milked cows in days to first service (DPS), number of services per conception (SC), percentage of abortions (PA), cumulative percentage of pregnant cows(PAVG) length of the embryo (LE), serum cortisol concentrations and milk production (PL). Cows were milked twice daily and randomly assigned to: (i) Received a routine intramuscular injection of oxytocin (10 IU / milking Injected Group, n=31) or (ii) not receive injection (Control group, n=29). Pregnancy diagnosis and measurement of the embryo was performed by ultrasonography 33(±4) days after artificial insemination. At 152.2±10 days in milk, several blood samples were taken before and after injection of the two groups of cows (Control, n=8 and Injected, n=7). The serum was processed and cortisol concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and chi-square. The Control cowshad lower (P=0.05) percentage of abortions (3.8%) than Injected cows (PA=23%). The PAVG was higher (P=0.01) in Control group. Embryos from Control cow (19.0±2.0 mm) had greater (P=0.0001) length than those of Injected cows (14.22±1.4 mm). There were no differences (P=0.10) in DPS, SC and PL. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P=0.0003) in Injected cows (33.4±2.8 ng / ml) than Control cows (11.6±2.4 ng/ml) cows. In conclusion, routine intramuscular injection of oxytocin increased serum cortisol concentrations and affected some reproductive profiles; we suggest not using intramuscular injection of oxytocin routinely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climatic Variables and Disease Incidence in Ghana: A Study of Cerebrum Spinal Meningitis (CSM)

Richard Bayel Trumah, John Ayer, Dadson Awunyo-Vitor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 304-315
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15448

Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of climatic factors on the outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) in the Obuasi Municipality of Ghana.
Significance: The project provides a validated climatic pattern and serves as reference point to: 1. Health administrators on CSM emergency preparedness which could lead to the prevention of fatalities as measures would be put in place to address an occurrence. 2. Environmentalists on the environmental factors that cause CSM outbreak. 3. Health consultants for sensitization and creations of awareness of the causes of CSM. 4. Stakeholders for planning and implementation of outbreak preparedness methods and strategy.
Methodology: Time series data on rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity was obtained from Ghana Meteorological Agency in Accra and AngloGold Ashanti, Obuasi. The rainfall and temperature values were taken from 1980 to 2011 while that of relative humidity was drawn from 1987 to 2011 due to the unavailability of data. Data on the reported case of CSM was obtained from Ghana Health Service. The data was analyzed using Cluster and correlation analysis.
Results: Correlation analysis indicates that the reported cases of CSM in Obuasi are positively and significantly related to temperature. However, from the cluster analysis there were no reported cases of CSM in other towns in the same cluster as Obuasi.
Conclusion: Climatic factors serve as catalyst for the occurrence of CSM. Without the complex interplay amongst these factors and the virus or bacterial CSM will not break out as the bacteria causing bacteria meningitis are commonly found in the nose and throat but not harmful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile, Cortisol and Haematological Alterations in Simulated Microgravity Using the Bat Model

J. O. Ashaolu, M. S. AJao

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 316-322
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15870

The mode of blood lipid and cortisol expression in simulated microgravity has been poorly understood. This study determined the influence of simulated microgravity (prolonged inversion) on the level of expression of serum cortisol, lipid profile and haematological parameters in bats. Forty bats (Eidolon helvum)were used for this study; they were divided into groups A, B, C and D Groups A, B, C and D were exposed to zero, seven, fourteen and twenty-one days of prolonged inversion respectively. Group A served as the control group. Results of the study showed that prolonged inversion induced the elevation of cortisol and indicated that stress was involved. There was amelioration of atherogenic parameters such that total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, trigycerides and very low density lipoprotein decreased as prolonged inversion progresses (p< 0.05). But high density lipoprotein increased with the progression of prolonged inversion (p< 0.05). Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell counts were significantly decreased with prolonged inversion (p< 0.05). But such parameters were partially ameliorated in the group (D) that underwent twenty-one days of prolonged inversion. This study concludes that simulated microgravity or prolonged inversion in bats is associated with stress, improvement of serum atherogenic indices and decline in haematological parameters, and that bats also showed adaptive responses of its haematological status in the prolonged inversion. This study could be useful in predicting health consequences of extreme environment such as space experienced by astronauts and possible countermeasures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Interstitial Angiotensin II and ATP in Mediating Renal Injury Induced by Recurrent Insulin Induced Hypoglycemia

Priyanka Prathipati, Wael Alanazi, Fakhruddin ., Debra W. Jackson, Keith E. Jackson

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 328-336
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16184

Aim: The present study hypothesizes that recurrent insulin induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) elevates renal interstitial ATP levels which in turn enhances AngII production. This interrupts the normal tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism by stimulating afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction resulting in hypertension, which augments oxidative stress and could promote renal damage.
Study Design: In the present study we adopted a microdialysis technique, which is a minimally invasive tool for monitoring chronic changes in renal interstitial fluid.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe between September 2012 – October 2013.
Methodology: Eight male Sprague Dawley rats (200-225 g) were anesthetized and microdialysis probes were inserted into their renal cortex. Post-surgery rats were treated with insulin (7U/kg body weight) for 2 weeks. Food and water intake were monitored daily. Physiological saline was perfused through the probe and dialysate was collected daily after insulin dosing and analyzed for ATP by luciferin-luciferase assay and AngII by EIA. At the end of the experiment, the hearts and kidneys were collected and analyzed for oxidative stress by EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectroscopy using CMH and CPH spin probes.
Results: ATP and AngII levels were elevated from 31.65±4.4ng/µl (day 0) to 130.96±2.9 ng/µl (day 14) and 0.1±0.01 ng/ml (day 0) to 0.247±0.02 ng/ml(day 14), respectively. Elevation of peroxynitrite and superoxide anions were observed in the hearts and kidneys of insulin treated animals when compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Thus the present study utilizes real-time chronic collections of renal interstitial samples to identify a potential mechanism where iatrogenic hypoglycemia promotes hypertension via a synergistic relationship between interstitial ATP, AngII and developed oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Economics of Surgical Cotton in Mixed Cropping Systems of India

Ambati Ravinder Raju

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 337-346
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11236

Aim: Estimate the economics of surgical cotton production in the natural home of G. arboreum cottons and advice the surgical cotton enterpreneurs.
Methodology: Field experiments, on farm trials, gin/surgical cotton unit surveys were conducted and economics was calculated from the relevant data.
Results: National bio-diversity authority of India (NBDAI) rules for large scale commercial exploitation doesn’t permit for surgical cotton production from the native cottons. G. arboreum indicum var. LD 230 and RG-8 could be grown commercially in the north eastern India under slash and burn system. Yaganti in Mungari cotton tract and MDL ABB-1 (selection from G. arboreum cernum local var. karbi under NATP RCPS-9) in Gaorani cotton tract of Andhra Pradesh state, G-27, RG-8, LD-491, Lohit, LD-230, Karbi cotton (local G. arboreum cernum) and Phule Dhanwantari in Jalgaon-Khandesh and Amraoti, Yeomal of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra states are few ready to use surgical cotton varieties for commercial production. Limitations of G. arboreum cernum is shy boll bearing, photo sensitive nature, fewer bolls, lower yield and servere grey mildew disease incidence in September month. Limitation of G. arboreum indicum cultivars were small boll size, boll worm damage, shattering of matured cotton, frequent pickings, lower GOT and grey mildew disease incidence results in less returns in market. Surgical cotton processing centres were located in west, central and south India which can encourage commercial production under contract farming can give a profitable returns of US $ 1000 ha-1. Premium to the extent of 30% is needed due to absence of Bt trait (19%) and higher ginning out turn (11%) outside north eastern India and north coastal Andhra Pradesh in order to compete with Bt hybrid cotton.
Conclusion: Meghalaya, Assam, Mizoram, Tripura and north coastal Andhra Pradesh, India which were the natural home of G. arboreum cernum and G. arboreum indicum cottons respectively having competitive price and yield advantage in by default organic conditions, besides premium quality and economical for surgical cotton production.