Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Links between Irrigation Water Microbiological Quality and Fresh Vegetables Quality in Upper East Region of Ghana Subsistence Farming

L. A. Adetunde, I. Sackey, D. Dominic DombirI, Zakaria W. Mariama

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 347-354
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/8273

Potential links between irrigation water microbiological quality and fresh vegetables quality in subsistence farming in Tono in the Upper East Region of Ghana were investigated. Water samples from Tono and Nanglakinia dam and six different types of vegetables (collected from Nanglakinia, Bonia, Korania), irrigated with this water were analysed for microbiological qualities. The study was carried out within a month. Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp and Yeast sp. were enumerated using plate count method while Total coliform bacteria were enumerated using Multiple Fermentation Tube Method. In water samples, Bacillus cereus counts ranged from 34 x 105 to 49 x 105 cfu/ml , Staphylococcus spp. counts ranged from 1 x 105 cfu/ml to 26 x 105 cfu/ml. Clostridium perfringes had bacteria counts 55 x 105 cfu/ml to 66 x 105 cfu/ml. Escherichia coli counts ranged between 51 x 105 cfu/ml to 79 x 105 cfu/ml. Salmonella spp. ranged from 8 x 105 cfu/ml to 47 x 105 cfu/ml. Yeast sp. also had counts ranging from 21 x 105 cfu/ml to 70 x105 cfu/ml. Total coliform counts ranged from 460 MPN/100ml to >1100 MPN/100 ml. In the vegetable samples, Bacillus cereus counts ranged from 3 x 105 cfu/g to 74 x 105 cfu/g. Staphylococcus spp. counts ranged from 0 to 21 x 105 cfu/g, Clostridium perfringes counts ranged from 37 x 105 cfu/g to 80 x 105 cfu/g. Escherichia coli counts ranged from 4 x 105 cfu/g to 80 x 105 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. counts ranged from 0 to 70 x 105 cfu/g. Yeast sp. also had counts ranging from 0 to 75 x 101 cfu/g. Streptococcus spp. was also tested for but there were no bacteria counts recorded. The microbial loads found in the water were similar to those on the fresh produce which showed potential links of the organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biotic Factors Affecting the Abundance of Vascular Epiphytic Bromeliads Growing in Cloud Forest in Reserva Biologica Los Cedros, Ecuador

M. Brown, A. Mariscal, M. A. Chinchero, A. Diaz

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 355-363
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16044

Aims: In this paper we investigate whether the abundance of epiphytic bromeliads growing in cloud forest was affected by: (1) phorophyte family; (2) phorophyte size; and (3) the abundance of other epiphytes.
Study Design: The abundance of bromeliads was compared on 35 random trees from each of the three most abundant tree families (Burseraceae, Moraceae and Clusiaceae) present within a study site consisted of a 25 m x 25 m riverine area, situated along the Rio Los Cedros, within the Reserva Los Cedros Biological Reserve. All trees and bromeliad species within the study area had previously been identified by staff from the National Herbarium of Ecuador and this information was made available to the authors. Verification of botanical identification was further supported on-site.
Place and Duration of Study: A one month study at Reserva Biologica Los Cedros, near the town of Chontal, Pichincha Province NW Ecuador.
Methodology: For each of the 105 trees sampled we recorded the following data: total number of bromeliads, number of each of the five most abundance species of bromeliads in the study area; tree family, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, percent cover of vascular epiphytes; percent cover of non-vascular epiphytes. Data were collected non-invasively from ground level by using binoculars.
Results: The results showed no evidence of phorophyte specificity amongst epiphytic bromeliads. However, larger phorophytes held more bromeliads irrespective of phorophyte family and even when supporting high abundances of other vascular epiphytes.
Conclusion: We conclude that it is tree size and not the phorophyte species that is most important in driving high abundance and diversity in bromeliad communities. We also conclude that the bromeliad component of epiphyte communities is not affected by competition from other co-occurring epiphytes. Further research is needed to understand how species interactions within epiphyte communities drive epiphyte community assembly, dynamics and diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytodiversity Assessment in Abandoned Solid Waste Dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

T. N. Eshalomi-Mario, F. B. G. Tanee

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 379-389
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14750

Aim: Assessments of phytodiversity at two abandoned solid waste dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Study Design: A systematic sampling approach comprising three line-transects of 5 m and 10 m interval was used.
Methodology: At each of the sites, an area of 15 m x 30 m was measured and demarcated. A total of nine 2 m x 2 m sample plots located along transects were used for the study. The species found at each sample plot were identified and counted.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Alakahia and Eastern-Bypass dumpsite, Port Harcourt alongside their controls in August, 2013.
Results: The total number of species found at Alakahia (site 1) was 36 species with 28 species found at the dumpsite and 17 species found at the control site. Eastern by-pass (site 2) presented a total of 38 species, with the dumpsite having a total of 29 species while the control site had a total of 26 species. 21 plant families were found at site1; and site 2 had 25 plant families. The family with the highest number of species was Poaceae. The dumpsites had higher species diversity than the control. The control site had higher frequency of species occurrence than the dumpsite. Chromolaena odorata and Luffa aegyptiaca were dominant at the dumpsites while the dominant species at the control site was Eleusine indica. Density of the species was also higher at the dumpsites compared to the control.
Conclusion: Solid waste dumpsites altered and favoured the growth of diverse species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Magnetic Field Can Improve Germination Potential and Early Seedling Vigor of Cabbage Seeds

Khurram Ziaf, Muhammad Amjad, Asmat Batool, Zia-Ul-Haq ., Sobia Saleem

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 390-400
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15654

The effect of magnetic field strengths (5, 10 and 15 mT) for 15, 25 and 35 min, on seed germination, vigor and seedling growth of two cabbage cultivars (Golden Acre and Green Ball) was evaluated through germination test. Higher germination percentage and vigor index was recorded in Golden Acre as compared to Green Ball. Seeds of both cultivars exposed to 5 mT and/or 10 mT exhibited improved uniformity in germination and membrane integrity due to reduction in time taken to 50% germination, mean germination time and electrical conductivity of seed leachates in contrast to control. Cabbage cultivar Golden Acre and Green Ball showed higher vigor and seedling fresh weight in response to magnetic field of 5 and 10 mT, respectively for both 15 and 25 minutes durations. Moreover, efficiency of each magnetic dose declined with increase in exposure time, particularly when seed were exposed to 15 mT. Results revealed significance of magnetic field treatment to improve seed germination (both percentage and uniformity), vigor and seedling growth of cabbage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nursery Techniques and Primary Growth of Rhizophora apiculata Plantation in Coastal Area, Central Vietnam

Tran Van Do, Pham Ngoc Dung, Osamu Kozan, Nguyen Toan Thang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 401-408
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16843

There are more than 3,200 km shoreline and 3,000 islands with more than 408,000 ha of mangrove forests in Vietnam. A total of 77 mangrove species were found in Vietnam including Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, R. stylosa, Kandelia candel, Avicennia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris. The mangrove forests have been dramatically reduced because of increasing in population, food demand, aquaculture development, and urbanization. In this study, research on techniques for producing seedlings and establishing Rhizophora apiculata Bl. plantation was conducted in coastal area, central Vietnam. Results indicated that to produce healthy seedlings 50% length of fruit shoot must be fixed to plastic bags and 10‰ salinity water must be used for daily watering. In addition, 5-month-old seedlings must be sea-watered for a duration of at least one month at nursery before planting. R. apiculata is an opportunistic invader in coastal area central Vietnam, since it can grow in new mudflats. In low tidal areas as tide happens 100 – 299 days/year with water depth of 0.2 – 0.3 m in 4 – 8 hours/day, 36-month-old planted trees achieved 187.7 cm tall, 4.2 cm stump diameter, and 41.8 prop-roots per tree. It is recommended that selecting suitable mangrove tree species for planting in new mudflats is important for the success of mangrove afforestation program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine on Phosphorylated Neurofilament in Brain Cortex of Rat Model for Parkinson’s Disease

Samah M. Fathy, Ibrahim Y. Addelkader

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 409-415
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15225

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting people over 60 years old. Although many studies on PD focused on basal ganglia, it has been reported that other brain regions might be involved. The current work investigated the effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injection on the brain cortex of PD rat model using Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques against phophorylated neurofilament antibody (pNF). A highly significant increase of pNF protein level in the treated rats was recorded using western blot as compared to the control rats. At the same time, Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses showed that the neuronal perikarya of the cerebral cortex of MPTP-treated rats were strongly immunopositive towards pNF. Meanwhile, axons and dendrites of the cerebral cortical neurons were selectively immunoreactive for pNF in the control rats. This study suggested that MPTP injection increased the level of pNF protein and its perikaryal accumulation with axonal reduction in the cortex of PD rat model. These variations might have an important role in the understanding of the pathologic mechanism of PD.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Effects of Neural and Other Diverse Pluripotent Stem Cells in Treating Various Neurological Disorders

Aminah Suhail Qureshi, Sikander Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 364-378
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/10480

Stem cells are unipotent (producing only one cell type, i.e. their own), pluripotent (giving rise to all cell types making up a body), or multipotent (having the ability to develop into more than one type of cell but less than that possessed by pluripotent) cells possessing an unlimited ability to proliferate and differentiate under proper culturing conditions. They can be conveniently obtained from the inner cell mass of mammalian embryos in the blastocyst stage (ESCs, which are pluripotent) and adult tissues (ASCs, which are multipotent so far). Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) proved to be fatal for the embryos owing to which induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) have been developed by forcibly inducing the expression of specific regenerative genes. All types of pluripotent stem cells, which include ectodermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and rare types of endodermal stemcells, are used in treating several early onset neurodevelopment diseases and late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be found in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS) and form a population comprising astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurones. Several researches conducted in animal models have shown structural and functional recovery as they have been researched on to treat diseases like stroke, brain tumours, metastatic tumours, human primary tumours, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis and, for this purpose, neural stem cells enjoy a pivotal status. Their efficacy and safety has been proven not only by the data collected from literature, but also from researches in animal models induced with various neurological disorders.