Open Access Original Research Article

Oesophagostomum and Other Strongylid Nematode Infections in Ruminants and Pigs in the Upper East Region of Ghana

C. A. Ahiabor, B. W. Lawson, A. M. Polderman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15444

Oesophagostomum species are strongylid nematode parasites of monkeys, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, camels and antelopes. Human infections were considered zoonotic. Studies in the north-eastern parts of Ghana suggested that the human infections might be common but focally distributed. Factors determining the focal distribution are not known. The relationship between the human and animal infections is also not known. It is also not known whether the animal infections are focal in distribution. In the present study, two communities known to be endemic to the human infection (Kulbia and Kologo) and two other communities known to be non-endemic to the human infection (Kalbiong and Gbeogo) in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana were selected. Prevalences and intensities of Oesophagostomum infection and other related strongylid nematode infections in ruminants and pigs were determined and compared. Faecal samples from cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were collected, processed by coproculture and examined under the microscope for larvae of the different strongylid nematodes. The results show no significant differences in prevalence of infection between the human endemic and human non endemic communities (= 1.00) during the rainy season and (P =.134) in the dry season. However, there were significant differences in the intensity of infection between the two types of communities only during the dry season (= .032). Other strongylid nematodes observed were Necator sp., Strongyloides sp. and Trichostongylus sp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Census and Population Dynamics of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia in Croatia in the years 2004/05

Jasmina Mužinić, Branimir K. Hackenberger

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 23-38
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16901

Aims: This study was carried out to determine the population dynamics of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia in Croatia and to compare it with that of neighbouring countries in Europe.
Study Design: The study is based on the analysis of the data of the 5th and 6th International surveys in Croatia on the pattern of 24 comparable municipalities.
Place and Duration of Study: Fieldwork was carried out on the territory of Croatia in the breeding area of the White Stork in the ten years of breeding period from 1994/95 to 2004/2005.
Methodology: On each White Stork location the data on nest placement and census work HPa, HP0, HPx, HPm and JZG were collected. From these data further parameters were derived: JZa, JZm, StD/100 km2 and StDBiol. Nest placements were divided into four categories. Using the software R version 3.0.1., statistical methods as Wilcoxon signed rank test and Friedman rank sum test were used in analysis.
Results and Conclusion: In Croatia, overall assessment of the White Stork pairs in 2004/05 (HPaestim) is 1 714 on overall surface of 25 481 kmwith 6.73 pair/100 kmand biological density (StDBiol) of 11.56 HPa/100 km2. Roofs and chimneys of residential and farm buildings were the most frequent nest placement (57.97%), then electric poles (38.36%) and trees (2.19%). In ten years the population trend indicates a stability of White Stork in Croatia with increase of 5.16%. Breeding success (JZa) is 2.39±0.93 and population density (StD) is 7.94 HPa/100 km2. The shift in the nest placement from the roofs/chimneys, trees and other objects to electric poles shows 15.16% nests less on roofs and 96.40% more on electric poles. The area of Nature Park Lonjsko polje is the most significant for the living and preserving the White Stork population supporting ÄŒigoÄ with 37 and Osekovo with 35 pairs as villages with the most breeding pairs in Croatia, mainly on roofs/chimneys.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Composition and Phytochemical Screening of Crushed, Toasted and Fermented Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) Seeds

Maikano Mohammed Ari, Samuel Emmanuel Alu, Boniface David Longtep, Ignatius Alum, Ahmad Hudu Usman, Sunday Moses Kwassau, John Patrick Onu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16097

Aims: To examine the effects of crushing (CRRS), Toasting (TRS) and fermentation (FRS) on the nutrient composition and phytochemical constituents of Roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa).
Study Design: Rosselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) seeds were divided into three (3) and subjected to crushing, toasting and fermentation processing methods. Duplicate samples of 100 grams each of the processed Roselle seeds were subjected to proximate analysis, amino acid evaluation, mineral determination and phytochemical screening while data collected were analysed using one-way ANOVA
Place and Duration of Study: Livestock Unit of Faculty of Agriculture, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Shabu- Lafia Campus and the Nutrition Laboratory of the university between October 2014 and November 2014.
Methodology: Raw Roselle seeds were subjected to three (3) processing methods viz: crushing (T1), toasting (T2) and fermentation (T3).Duplicate samples of each of the processed Roselle seeds were subjected to proximate analysis, amino acid evaluation, mineral determination and phytochemical screening.
Results: Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fat (EE), Crude Fibre (CF), Total Ash, Dry matter (DM), Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE), Methionine, Lysine and Tryptophan values showed significant (P=0.05) increase with fermentation. Na, K, Ca and P were significantly (P=0.05) affected by processing. Phytochemicals screening indicates the presence of alkaloids, saponin, and phenols in an appreciable amount in the crushed and fermented while tannin, flavonoids and glycosides are present in moderate amounts; phlobatannin was found to be moderately present only in fermented Roselle seeds.
Conclusion: Nutrient improvement and the preservation of most phytochemical constituents of Roselle seeds was best achieved through fermentation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Bio-ethanol from Molasses by Schizosaccharomyces Species

Shami E. A. Bakhiet, Marwa Abdalrhim Mahmoud

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15918

Aims: The aims of this study were isolation of Schizosaccharomyces species and production of bio-ethanol from local sugarcane molasses.
Study Design: The study was designated as an experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum – Sudan “1st February to 30thMay 2014”.
Methodology: Schizosaccharomyces species were isolated from three different sources (Lentils, Banana and Sorghum Fermented dough) using poured plate technique consisting Yeast Extract Agar (YEA) medium. Physical and microbiological analyses were carried out for molasses samples. Raw Molasses (RM) in range of 100-500 ml and Sucrose-determined molasses in range of 10-50% sucrose were fermented using three isolates for each concentration separately. The bio-ethanol was determined and evaluated.
Results: The moisture content of molasses was found to be 65%. The ash was 6.50%. The pH value was decreased by one unit during the fermentation processes due to the molasses degradation with acid production. Bio-ethanol was produced from two types of molasses preparations (raw molasses and sucrose determined concentration samples). Schizosaccharomyces spp. fermented molasses samples at all concentrations except 100% because the solution was hypertonic and the microorganisms did not tolerate that concentration. The highest volume of ethanol obtained at concentration of 3:300 ml of molasses/row. While the lowest one obtained at concentration of 4:10% of sucrose / row. The final bio-ethanol was appeared to be colourless, clear, bright, and free from turbidity indicating its high specification quality.
Conclusion: The best conditions to obtain a highest volume of bio-ethanol are appropriate concentrations of molasses and suitable pH. The highest volume of bio-ethanol was 23.51 ml which obtained at 85.5 g/solids (molasses) and pH 6. While highest volume of bio-ethanol is sucrose-determined concentration sample was 16.03 ml at 71.25 g/solids and pH 6. We recommended the utilization of Schizosaccharomyces species in large scale production of ethanol to manage the industrial wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Evaluation of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Carica papaya

E. Evwierhurhoma, M. C. Ugwu, C. O. Eze, C. Annie, F. O. Enwa, P. M. Eze, C. O. Esimone

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16481

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Carica papaya against selected clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria and to also determine the phytochemical constituents of the plants.
Methodology: Extraction of plant leaves was carried using the cold maceration method and preliminary antimicrobial screening of the extracts was done using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts against test organisms were determined using the broth dilution technique. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also determined.
Results: Phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of both plants revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins and anthraquinones. Antibacterial activity was recorded at concentrations ranging from 12.5-50 µg/mL. At 50 µg/mL, the aqueous and ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum showed best activity against E. coli and S. typhi respectively. Also, the aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. papaya recorded good activity against E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the aqueous extract of C. papaya against test isolates ranged from 12.5-25 µg/mL and that of the ethanol extract ranged from 25-50 µg/mL. O. gratissimum recorded MICs that ranged from 12.5-25 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and 25 µg/mL for the ethanol extract. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of C. papaya ranged from 25-50 µg/mL for the aqueous extracts and 50 µg/mL for the ethanol extract; and that of O. gratissimum ranged from 12.5-25 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and 25−50 µg/mL for the ethanol extracts.
Conclusion: This study shows that C. papaya and O. gratissimum leaves have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional use of these plants as medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Dromedary Camels Affected with Pneumonia for the First Time in Sudan

Muna E. Ahmed, Musa Tibin Musa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16744

Aims: Of the study were to isolate and identify bacteria from pneumonic lungs and the upper respiratory tracts of camels slaughtered at Tambool Abattoir.
Study Design: A total of 800 samples were collected from 400 camels of different ages and sexes, from different parts of the Sudan. The samples comprised lung specimens and tracheal swabs, from each camel.
Place of Study: The samples collected from Tambool abattoir included congested and hepatized lungs and from abscesses, suppurative and adhered lung tissues then transported immediately on ice to the Veterinary Research Institute, Soba for isolation of bacteria.
Methodology: A total of 713 bacterial isolates were isolated from the samples of which 489 (68.6%) were Gram positive and 224 (31.4%) were Gram negative bacteria. The isolates were characterised by three different techniques: 584 (81.90%), with the conventional, 60(8.42%) with the Api kits and 69 (9.68%) with the automated Vitek 2 Compact system.
Results: The isolates that were characterized conventionally were: Actinomyces, Aeromonas, Bacillus and Corynebacterium spp, E. coliKlebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp.
The isolates characterized by the Api kits were: Aeromonas spp, Burkholderia cepaciaEscherichia coli (E. coli), Enterobacter cloacaEnterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp.
The isolates characterized by the Vitek 2 Compact were: Acinetobacter, Actinomyces spp, Aeromonas hydrophilia, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas viridans, Alloiococcus otitis (A. otitis), Bacillus spp, Bordetella bronciseptica, Burkholderia cepacia, Corynebacterium spp, E. coli, Escherichia hermanii, Enterobacter cloaca, Enterobacter sakasakiiFacklamia hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, K. pneumoniae, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Micrococcus spp, Morganella morganii, Pantoe sp, Pediococcus sp, Providense stuartii, Pseudomonas spp, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Staphylococcus spp, Stenotrophomona maltophia and Streptococcus spp included Streptococcus agalaciae (Str. agalaciae), Streptococcus suis (Str. suis) and Streptococcus bovis (Str. bovis).
Conclusion: A. otitis which causes acute otitis media in man was isolated from a camel trachea in this study. Str. agalaciae was isolated from a camel for the first time in the Sudan and Str. suis and Str. boviswere similarly reported.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli Including an O157:H7 Isolate from Feces of Healthy Goats in Grenada

Victor A. Amadi, Estefania Avendano, Ozioma A. Onyegbule, Zachary Pearl, Stratton Graeme, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/17129

Aim: To determine: the occurrence of Escherichia coli including the O157:H7 serotype in feces of healthy goats in 10 randomly selected farms in Grenada and the antimicrobial drug resistance in E. coli isolated from feces of the tested goats.
Study Design: During the period of May to July, 2014, fecal samples were obtained from randomly selected healthy goats in 10 farms in Grenada and analyzed in the bacteriology laboratory, in the Pathobiology Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada.
Methodology: Fecal samples were obtained from 70 randomly selected healthy goats in 10 farms in Grenada and cultured for E. coli and tested for O157:H7 serotype by the presence of non-sorbitol fermenting colonies and a positive reaction to O157-agglutination latex kits.
Results: All the 70 tested goats were culture positive for Escherichia coli. A total of 140 E. coli isolates were recovered and analyzed for the presence of non-sorbitol fermenting colonies and O157-agglutination. Of the 140 yielded E. coli, 11 (8%) isolates were non-sorbitol fermenters but only one (<1%) out of the non-sorbitol fermenters gave a positive reaction to the two E. coli O157:H7 latex kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against 12 drugs showed susceptibility of the single E. coli O157:H7 isolate recovered to all the tested antibiotics. Among the non-O157:H7 isolates, the susceptibility rates to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, cefepime and ceftazidime ranged from 99% to 100%. The resistance rate to ampicillin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline observed was very low except to streptomycin (19%). Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed only in 5% of the 140 E. coli isolates.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that presently, healthy goats in Grenada are not major reservoirs for the E. coli O157:H7 serotype and for multiple resistant E. coli strains.