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Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study between Greeks and Albanians with the Use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Apolipoprotein B Gene

Alexandra Ampati, Stauroula Papadodima, Eleni Zorba, Chara Spiliopoulou, Maria Georgiou

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16246

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein B gene between two different populations, Greeks and Albanians living in Greece and to investigate the possibility of discriminating the two populations by using these polymorphisms.
Methodology: Restriction fragment length polymorphisms at codons 2488 (XbaI) and 4154 (EcoRI) of the apolipoprotein B gene were investigated in the above populations, in order to determine if there are differences between them. Two specific DNA regions, each containing the polymorphic site, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The products were digested and electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel was followed. A total number of 160 unrelated individuals from each population were randomly collected.
Results: The allelic frequencies of the samples from Greeks and Albanians showed variability patterns for the XbaI and EcoRI Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms. For Greeks and Albanians the presence of E+/+ genotype was almost the same (67.5% and 70.6% respectively), without statistical significant differences and the E-/- genotype showed low common presence (6.3% and 2.5% respectively). The presence of X-/- genotype had almost the same ratio for the two populations (48.1% for Greeks and 39.4% for Albanians) and the presence of X+/+ genotype was low enough for both of them.
Conclusion: The study of the two populations (Greeks and Albanians) did not show any statistically significant differences concerning the frequency of the genotypes of XbaI and EcoRI polymorphisms of the APOB gene.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Effect of Growth Regulators on Micropropagation of Gloriosa superba L. from Seeds and Their Acclimatization

Dharmendra Singh, Manish Mishra, Anirudha Singh Yadav

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12975

Background: G. superb L. is an important medicinal plant of Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is distributed naturally widely throughout the tropics, and worldwide as a pot plant. Due the poor germination and low viability of seeds plant required more time for growing. As seed germination is poor and vegetative propagation is slow, The methods of rapid micropropagation are required. Procedure for seed germination and micropropagation were established.
Results: Fresh and healthy seeds were cultured on Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with different concentration of BAP and GA3. Best seed germination was observed at 1.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l GA3 at minimum time of 49 days. MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP+ 0.5 mg/l IAA and 0.5 mg/l kinetin recorded the highest response of shoot multiplication (3.0±0.3) with best shoot length (3.2±0.24 cm). The regenerated shoots were cultured on MS medium. 1.5 IBA and 0.5 NAA mg/l was found to be the best concentration for maximum percent of root initiation. The rooted plantlets were successfully transferred into plastic cups containing sand, peat and soil in the ratio of 1:1:1 and subsequently established in the greenhouse. Thereafter they were reared for three weeks. The survival rate of regenerants was found to be 60%.
Conclusion: According to the observations suitable combination of cytokinin and GA3 proved to be effective in the case of seed germination. In shoot cultures of G. superb L. BAP proved to be the effective cytokinin too.

Open Access Original Research Article

Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Serotype in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Grenada and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of the non-O157 Isolates

Victor A. Amadi, Ulrike Zieger, Ozioma A. Onyegbule, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 91-99
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18143

Aim: To determine the occurrence of the E. coli including the O157:H7 serotype in mongooses and their antimicrobial drug resistance in Grenada.
Study Design: Experimental based study of feces of mongooses captured from six parishes of Grenada from April 2011 to March 2013 during an active rabies surveillance program.
Methodology: Fecal samples from 156 mongooses were cultured for E. coli and tested for O157:H7 serotype by the presence of non-sorbitol fermenting colonies and a positive reaction to O157-agglutination latex kits.
Results: Of the 156 mongooses, 71 (46%) were culture positive for E. coli. A total of 213 E. coli isolates were recovered and examined for the presence of non-sorbitol fermenting colonies and O157-agglutination. Of the 213 E. coli isolates, only 8 (4%) were non-sorbitol fermenters. However, none of the 213 isolates gave a positive reaction (O157-agglutinating) to the two E. coli O157:H7 latex kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against 12 drugs revealed a low resistance rates to ampicillin (8%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (0.5%), ciprofloxacin (1.4%), enrofloxacin (2.3%), gentamicin (0.5%), nalidixic acid (3.3%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5.6%). High resistance rates to streptomycin (38%) and tetracycline (36%) was observed among the E. coli isolates. The susceptibility rate to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ranged from 86.9 to 100%. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 57 (27%) of the E. coli isolates recovered.
Conclusion: This study showed that presently, mongooses in Grenada are neither a reservoir for the E. coli O157:H7 serotype nor for multiple drug resistant E. coli strains. Among the 213 non-O157:H7 E. coli isolates, the resistance rate to drugs other than streptomycin and tetracycline was very low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strongylid Nematode Infections of Humans, Ruminants and Pigs in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana

C. A. Ahiabor, B. W. Lawson

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 109-118
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15445

Aim: Human Oesophagostomum infections are considered zoonotic. In Ghana, the human infections are known to be focally distributed in the north-eastern parts of the Northern and the Upper East regions. Factors involved in the distribution of the human infection are not clear. It is also not known whether the human and animal infections occur outside these regions. The present study, therefore, sought to determine the types of strongylid nematode parasites infecting ruminants and pigs and also, whether human Oesophagostomum infections occur in Kumasi.
Study Design and Methodology: Stool samples were obtained from Hospital outpatients, abattoir workers and dealers in ruminants and pigs in Kumasi, processed by coproculture and examined microscopically for strongylid nematode larvae.
Results: No human Oesophagostomum infections were detected in the sampled Hospital outpatients, abattoir workers and dealers in ruminants and pigs. However, there were infections with Necator sp. and Strongyloides stercoralis at prevalences of 8.4% and 7.4%, respectively. Prevalences of Oesophagostomum in the animals sampled, during the rainy and dry seasons were 39.9% and 49.5% respectively for pigs: 41.9% and 16.1% for cattle: 44.1% and 15.1% for sheep: 37.1% and 38.2% for goats. These prevalence levels were comparable to prevalences obtained in a study conducted in sampled population of human, ruminants and pigs at the Bolgatanga slaughterhouse in the Upper East Region of Ghana.
Conclusion: The results may be indicative of different species of Oesophagostomum being infective to humans and the various animals. Further investigations into the conditions that determine the presence and transmission of the human and animal parasites are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological and Biochemical Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Liver of Wistar Rats

S. I. Ogenyi, T. P. P. Choji, A. Chimezirim, A. O. Onyemelukwe, A. A. Ngokere, U. F. Onwuasoanya, J. C. Akulue

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 119-125
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/17292

Aims: This work aims at determining the effect of cigarette smoke on the liver of albino Wistar rats, to evaluate the histological, as well as the biochemical changes in the adult albino rat’s liver and to elucidate the relationship between exposure period and effect.
Study Design: An experimental study which lasted for 4 weeks was conducted at the Animal House of The College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus.
Methodology: Twenty four (24) adult albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) each consisting of six rats. The average weight of each group was taken. Group A (normal control) had no exposure to cigarette smoke throughout the period of experiment. Groups B, C and D were exposed to cigarette smoke for two, three and four weeks respectively. The duration of exposure for each cigarette is 10±4 minutes and one hour interval was left between burning of each cigarette. After the experiment, blood samples were collected through direct cardiac punctures and delivered into plain test tubes for biochemical assay, and the animals painlessly sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia. The liver was excised, fixed in 10% formal saline for 48 hours and processed using paraffin wax processing techniques.
Results: Rats in groups B, C and D showed varying degrees of loss of appetite, moderate irritability and breathing difficulties with significant decrease in body weights after second and third weeks (P=.001). Significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities between the control and test groups was observed (P=0.000). Histologicaly, the liver of rats in group C shows marked necrosis and fatty deposition.
Conclusion: The study reveals adverse effect of passive cigarette smoke on the liver morphology and biochemistry of the animal model. The need for similar study in humans is advocated.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Second Collection of Monogeneans and Trematodes (Phylum Platyhelminthes) Parasitic on Some Fishes from Tigris River at Baghdad Province, Iraq

Jawdat Majeed Al-Jawda, Kassim Radhawye Asmar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 126-132
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/17797

Aims: This works aims to report on the monogeneans and trematodes that infect some species of fishes from Tigris River in Baghdad Province, Iraq.
Place and Duration of Study: Tigris River in Baghdad Province at three sites in Baghdad province: Al-Taji in the north of Baghdad city, Al-Shawaka in the center of Baghdad city and Al-Zaafaraniya in the south of Baghdad city during the period from January to December 2011.
Methodology: Monthly samples were collected from three stations from Tigris River in Baghdad province with the aid of gill and cast nets. Fishes were examined for external and internal parasites. For each parasite species, prevalence of infection was calculated.
Statistical Analysis: A comparison of parasitic infections of fishes from the three stations was investigated.
Results and Discussion: Result of inspection showed that five (out of eight) fish species were infected with 13 species of monogeneans and four species of trematodes. The monogeneans included one species each of Paradiplozoon and Thaparocleidus, two species of Gyrodactylus and nine species of Dactylogyrus, while the trematodes included one species each of Ascocotyle and Clinostomum and two species of Diplostomum. Among all these parasites, A. coleostoma infected the highest number of hosts (five host species), while 13 parasite species infected only one host each.
Among these fishes, Carassius carassius was infected with the highest number of parasite species (nine species), followed by Carasobarbus luteus (eight species) and Chondrostoma regium (four species) while no infection was detected from three fish species (Alburnus caeruleus, Cyprinus carpio and Leuciscus vorax).
In addition, a total of seven new host records in Iraq were reported for seven species of these parasites.
Conclusion: Host specificity is clear in monogeneans as 12 out of the 11 monogenean species infected one fish species each. All the trematodes were as metacercariae which later infect piscivorous aquatic birds.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Experimental Methods of Diabetic Research: Advantages and Limitations

Umar Zayyanu Usman, Ainul Bahiyah Abu Bakar, Mahaneem Mohamed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 100-108
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/17404

Globally diabetes mellitus has become a medical problem with an increase in prevalence, morbidity and mortality. To date, it has no cure yet, however, medical care, healthy life style and exercise programme are provided to the patients to alleviate the diabetic symptoms and avoid complications. Animal model remains the best model for intensive diabetic research because of its flexibility, in order to investigate the possible curative and preventive measures for this life threatening metabolic disease. The purpose of this review is to update and compile all the documented procedures, methods or techniques in diabetic study using experimental animal models and highlight on their advantages and limitations. Some of the techniques used in studying diabetes mellitus are islets cells autoimmune antibodies, cytotoxic chemical substances, high sugar high fat diet, steroid therapy, surgical removal of the pancreatic tissue, transgenic animal model, normoglycemic animal and genetically modified animal model. Most of these techniques are currently applied in diabetic research while a few techniques are rarely used due to their nature, cost and time consuming. Hence, this review may help the researchers to select the most appropriate procedure to be used in their diabetic study using experimental animal model to suit their target and desired objective.