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Open Access Original Research Article

Mean Variance Relationships of Genome Size and GC Content

Sunil Kanti Mondal, Rabindra Nath Das, Sudip Kundu, Jinseog Kim, Gurprit Grover, Shamim Akhtar Ansari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 206-221
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16709

The present article focuses how the genome size and GC content are explained based on codon and amino-acid usage. This current study aims to identify the statistically significant factors of genome size and GC content using statistical modeling. The present analyses show that habitat (P = 0.08), taxonomy (P = 0.02), genome GC content (P < 0.01), isolation temperature (P< 0.01), GC% of the 2nd position within a codon for protein coding part (P< 0.01), number of total tRNA genes within genome (P< 0.01), lower (P< 0.01) and upper (P = 0.01) boundary of GC% for tRNA encoding genes, average frequency (within 100) of non-polar aliphatic (P< 0.01), aromatic (P< 0.01), and positively charged r group containing amino acids (P< 0.01) are statistically significant effects of entire genome size. On the other hand, taxonomy (P = 0.03), genome size (P< 0.01), isolation temperature (P = 0.02), GC% of protein coding part of total genome (P< 0.01), GC% of the 1st (P< 0.01), 2nd (P< 0.01), and 3rd position (P< 0.01) within a codon for protein coding part, number of total tRNA genes within genome (P< 0.01), lower (P< 0.01) and upper (P< 0.01) boundary of GC% for tRNA encoding genes, average frequency (within 100) of non-polar aliphatic (P< 0.01), aromatic (P< 0.01) and negatively charged r group containing amino acids (P = 0.01) are statistically significant effects of entire genome GC content. These analyses support, and also try to remove some conflicts of many earlier research findings. However, the present analyses also have identified all new causal factors in the variance models, and many additional causal factors in the mean models of genome size and genome GC content, which was not reported by the earlier investigators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Some Haematological Parameters of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Experimentally Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum

I. J. Barde, J. O. O. Bale, S. B. Oladele, M. Y. Fatihu, P. R. Kumbish, A. G. Rimfa, I. S. Teki, G. D. Moses, J. S. Ahmed, P. A. Okewole

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 222-228
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18450

Aim: To determine some haematological changes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum
Methodology: A total of 160 (108 males and 52 females) Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used in this study. The quails were obtained at the age of four weeks from the Poultry Division of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were randomly selected and assigned into four groups (A, B, C and D) of forty quails each. Groups A, B and C were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum per os at the dose of 106, 104 and 102, respectively, while group D served as the control. Blood with anticoagulant (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) was used for the determination of haematological parameters.
Results: There were no significant differences in haematological parameters (P > 0.05) between the groups before infection. There were, however, significant changes (P<0.05) in haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concencentrations, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), heterophil and lymphocyte counts between the infected groups when compared with the control group. There were also significant changes (P<0.05) in these haematological parameters post-infection compared to before infection within each infected group.
Conclusion: This study has shown that Salmonella gallinarum causes decrease in some haematological parameters, such as packed cell volume (10%) and red blood cell count (10%) and haemoglobin concentration (5%) and increase in heamatological indices, such as mean corpuscular volume (5%), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (30%), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (30%) above control group values in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). These findings could be useful in the diagnosis of subclinical cases of fowl typhoid in the Japanese quails.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-morphological Characterization of Corchorus olitorius Cultivars of Benin

Habib O. Adebo, Léonard E. Ahoton, Florent Quenum, Vincent Ezin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 229-240
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/17642

Aim: Corchorus olitorius is indubitably one of the most important vegetables in Benin. It is grown in most regions of the country and also in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, particularly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Therefore, the aim was to determine the phenotypic diversity of different cultivars of C. olitorius in Benin
Study Design: A randomized complete block design was used.
Methodology: Forty seed samples of C. olitorius were collected during a survey carried out in twenty-one (21) municipalities of Benin. These seeds were sown at Savè in the center of Benin. Twelve (12) quantitative traits and eleven (11) qualitative traits were recorded.
Results: The results of principal component analysis and hierarchical ascending classification applied to quantitative variables showed six (06) classes of cultivars namely: C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6. The discriminating characteristics highlighted were: plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, leaf length, leaf width, fruit length, fruit diameter, flowering date, the number of days between two successive cuts and fresh leaf weight. For cultivars of classes C5 and C4, the number of days between two successive cuts was the shortest and their cycle was the longest. Fresh leaf weight and fruit number per plant were higher. As for the qualitative characters studied, only four cultivars showed variability. Three (03) leaf types were identified: lobed type, lanceolate type and simple indented type.
Conclusion: There is a great variability within Benin cultivars. Cultivars from southern Benin were more diverse than those in the north. Cultivars of the classes C5 and C4 showed the best performance (important number of leaves and branches, high yield and a big size). These two classes are of great importance to vegetable farmers and breeders. Cultivars of classes C1 and C3 are of less importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Glasgow Coma Score at Admission to Predict One Year Mortality in Injured Admitted to the Trauma Centre of a North Indian State Lacking an Organized System of Trauma Care

Vikas Verma, Girish Kumar Singh, Ajay Singh, Santosh Kumar, Suresh Kumar, Ravi Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 241-248
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18159

Aim: To investigate whether Glasgow Coma Score at admission can be used to predict one year mortality in a resource constrained scenario lacking prehospital care.
Study Design: Prospective observational study
Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at the King George Medical University trauma centre between January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2010
Methodology: Information regarding factors known to affect mortality was recorded. Patients were followed up till death or for a period of one year since injury. Patients that died due to reasons other than injury and those with incomplete data sets were excluded from analysis. Three patients died due to reasons other than injury. Logistic regression, actuarial survival analysis, Cox proportionate Hazard model were used to identify predictors of one year mortality.
Results: We enrolled 572 patients (478 males, 94 females, mean age 40.81±16.3 years). One hundred forty three patients died during follow up (140 due to injury and 3 due to other reasons). Thirty six patients had incomplete data sets. Kaplan Meir survival curve showed two distinct phase of mortality namely before and after 6th day of injury. Mortality within six days of injury was predicted by age, ISS, APTT, Glasgow Coma Score at admission and cervical spine injury. Mortality after 6th day was predicted by Glasgow Coma Score at the time of admission. Last death occurred 8 weeks after injury.
Conclusion: Glasgow coma score at the time of admission is a valid predictor of one year mortality in trauma care systems lacking in pre-hospital care and an organized system of trauma care. Patients with low Glasgow Coma Score at admission continue to die 8 weeks after injury and therefore should be managed in the hospital for at least 8 weeks.

Open Access Original Research Article

High-fat Diet Alone or Combined with Stress Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Female Rats1

Hamid Vasfi, Fatemeh Rostamkhani, Mina Salimi, Homeira Zardooz

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 261-274
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18905

Background: According to the role of estrogens in metabolic responses to high-fat diet and/or stress, this study aimed to investigate the effect of high- cow intra-abdominal fat diet either alone or combined with acute foot-shock stress on glucose metabolism at proestrus  and diestrus  phases of estrous cycle.

Material and Methods: Female rats were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups. The diet groups recruited into control and stressed and finally subdivided into proestrus and diestrus groups. Stress was applied by a communication box. Blood samples were taken after stress exposure to determine glucose related parameters, and then glucose tolerance test was performed. Moreover, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, body weight, food intake, abdominal fat and adrenal gland weights were evaluated.

Results: High-fat diet did not change body weight but decreased food intake and increased energy intake. Moreover, the intra-abdominal fat weight and plasma leptin concentration were increased by applying high-fat diet. In addition, high-fat food consumption caused a decrease in plasma estradiol concentration and an increase in plasma corticosterone level (following stress exposure) in proestrus phase. High-fat diet either alone or combined with stress impaired glucose tolerance at proestrus phase. However, did not affect fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels as well as HOMA-IR index. 

Conclusion: The results showed that the high-fat diet used in this study, alone or combined with stress, impaired glucose homeostasis in female rats. However, the proestrus phase compared with diestrus phase was more sensitive to the aforementioned environmental interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Indirect ELISA and TBIA for Detection of Some Viruses in Naturally Infected Faba Bean Plants

Maha A. Kawann, Gaber I. Fegla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 275-282
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19181

Aims: The main objective of the present study is to compare between indirect ELISA and TBIA for detecting some faba bean (Vicia faba L) viruses in naturally infected faba bean plants.

Methodology: Fifty four samples with different mosaic and mottle symptoms were separately collected from faba bean plants of different regions of the open fields of Alexandria governorate during the growing season of 2013/2014.

Stems of samples showing such symptoms were taken from each sample and indexed by indirect ELISA and TBIA for infection with Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), Broad bean true mosaic virus (BBTMV), Broad bean stain virus (BBSV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV).

The incidence of these viruses and the single and mixed infections in samples were determined by both tests. Also, comparison between the sensitivity of indirect ELISA and TBIA for detection of faba bean viruses in samples was assessed.

Results: Both indirect ELISA and TBIA revealed that BYMV was the most common spread virus followed by BBTMV, PSbMV, BBMV and BBSV. However TBIA proved to be relatively more sensitive than indirect ELISA. BYMV, BBMV, and BBSV were detected by TBIA and indirect ELISA in 77.78 and 74.07%; 33.33 and 29.63%; 31.48 and 29.63% of the tested samples, respectively. The other two viruses, BBTMV and PSbMV viruses were detected by both tests with the same frequency, 40.74 and 35.19%, respectively. Single, double, triple and other multiple infections were detected by TBIA and indirect ELISA.

Conclusion: The study suggests that, not all infected samples with a particular virus (es) detected by TBIA were observed with indirect ELISA. TBIA was more sensitive, more practical and cheaper and does not require sophisticated facilities than indirect ELISA.

Open Access Review Article

Phytotherapeutic Molecules & Antioxidants: A Novel & Secure Approach of Cancer Prevention

Varsha Sharma, Akshay Katiyar, R. C. Agrawal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 249-260
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18862

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects such as vomiting, hair loss, immunosupression, free radical formation etc. occur during chemotherapy. Free radicals are the cause of oxidative stress, which may causes injury to cells, gene mutation, and may lead to cancer. Oxidative stress can also causes cancer, by the interaction with intracellular signal transduction and transcription factors, directly or indirectly. An antioxidant is any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule. This can be achieved by the entrance of substances such as phytotherapeutic molecules, oxidation inhibitors, vitamins, minerals, in the body from different natural sources. These compounds neutralize the free radicals and prevent from excessive production of harmful elements in the body. Phytotherapeutic molecules are the secondary metabolites which hold the promise to design new drugs in drug development process for treatment of lot of diseases such as cancer. This review is attempt to screen and explore the role of phytotherapeutic molecules and oxidative inhibitors as novel and secures approach of anticancer and chemo-preventive agents. There are lots of natural therapies available in traditional medicine system such as phytotherapy, immunotherapy etc. to prevent and sometimes cure the cancer. The herbs, spices, vegetables & fruits are the rich source of phytotherapeutic molecules and antioxidants which are strongly active against carcinogenesis.