Open Access Method Article

When Reasonably Stop Sampling? How to Estimate the Gain in Newly Recorded Species According to the Degree of Supplementary Sampling Effort

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 300-308
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18809

Aim: Register new species gradually becomes more difficult as sampling of a community progresses, addressing increasingly rarer species. Thus, although biodiversity assessments would ideally require complete samplings, only partial samplings are ordinarily achieved when species abundances distributions are highly heterogeneous within communities, which is often the case. Then, in the frequent context of partial samplings, answering knowingly whether to continue or stop an ongoing inventory require to tentatively assess the “profitability” of the extra sampling effort. That is, trying to estimate the number of species expected to be newly recorded thanks to a given further increase of the sampling size.

Methods: Such estimate may be conveniently derived on the basis of the recorded numbers f1, f2, f3, fx, of species already recorded once, twice, three, … x-times within the ongoing sampling. The derivation involves a Taylor expansion of the species accumulation curve, with the successive derivatives of the species accumulation curve being respectively expressed in terms of the successive recorded values of fx.

Results: A simple nonparametric estimator of the expected number of newly recorded species is derived as a function of the foreseen additive sampling effort. Depending only upon the directly recorded values of the fx within the ongoing sampling, this estimator is easy-to-implement and, in particular, does not require recording explicitly the species accumulation curve.

Conclusion: The practical interest of this estimator is to offer a convenient way to  gauge the additional sampling effort required for a given increase in sample completeness, thus providing quantitative elements to determine whether further continuing an ongoing sampling looks appropriate or not, in the context of both limited available time expenditure and possible other competing priorities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Species Characteristics and Woody Plant Community Types within the Historical Range of Savannah Elephant, Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797 in Northern Togo (West Africa)

Aniko Polo-Akpisso, Kpérkouma Wala, Soulemane Ouattara, Yao A. Woegan, Mamadou Coulibaly, Abalo Atato, Wouyo Atakpama, M’Tékounm Nare, Tano Yao, Koffi Akpagana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 283-299
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19271

Aims: Assessment of plant species diversity and habitat typology.

Study Design: Stratified random sampling design according to defined land categories of a land cover map.

Place and Duration of Study: Complex of protected areas Oti-Keran-Mandouri (Northern Togo) from March to December 2014.

Methodology: Floristic data, forest measurements (total height and diameter of woody species with diameter at breast height (DBH) greater than 10 cm) and 17 environmental variables were collected in plots of 50 m X 20 m; herbaceous species were recorded in subplot of 10 m X 10 m at the center of the big plot and juveniles (woody species with DBH<10 cm) were counted in three subplots of 5 m X 5 m installed diagonally. Floristic data were collected according to the phytosociological scale of Braun-Blanquet. After deletion of outliers, two different matrices were considered for canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and .for hierarchical cluster analysis.

Results: A total of 320 plant species were recorded in 182 plots and grouped in 209 genera and 66 families. The most frequent species were Piliostigma thonningii (2.90%), Pterocarpus erinaceus (2.90%), Combretum glutinosum (2.34%), Anogeissus leiocarpus (2.09%), and Terminalia laxiflora (2.09%). The species’ distribution was influenced by two major ecological gradients: habitat degradation and soil. The first four canonical axes of the CCA express 9.4% of the variance in species distribution and 50.4% of the variance in species-environment relation with a total inertia of 19.66%. Seven groups of woody plant communities were distinguished according to their species composition (0.35 ≤H≤1.43 and 0.37≤E≤0.83).

Conclusion: Species composition and distribution are influenced by environmental variables especially anthropogenic activities. However, dominant species are relevant to large herbivores such as the African savannah elephant. Management system should be improved to maintain this important corridor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Pattern in Child Mortality Rate in Rural Nigeria

Abimbola O. Adepoju

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 309-317
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9643

A country’s socioeconomic condition and quality of life is reflected in the rate of child mortality in that country. This paper examined the differentials in child mortality rate across socioeconomic, demographic and selected health characteristics in rural Nigeria, employing the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey data. Analysis of health attributes and morbidity pattern of mother and child revealed that most of the respondents did not have access to good health facilities and antenatal care. As a result, more than three-quarters of the respondents delivered their babies at home and had less than 24 months birth interval between pregnancies. Results showed that child mortality rate was highest among illiterate mothers, mothers without a source of income, under aged women (less than 20 years) and among fathers whose primary livelihood lie in agriculture. Regional analysis showed that the North-Western zone had the highest child mortality rate followed by the North-Eastern zone, while the South-South zone had the lowest. With respect to health attributes, children delivered at home, who were never breastfed and of multiple births had high mortality rates. Gender differentials showed that the rate of mortality was higher for male than for female children but lowest for children who had been fully immunized and whose mothers were aged between 21 and 30 years. Consequently, the design and implementation of policies, projects, and programmes that give priority to essential maternal and child care should be of main concern, if there is to be any improvement in the quality of life of the Nigerian child.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Fish Diversity of Two Lacustrine Wetlands in the Upper Benue Basin, Nigeria

D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. N. Buba, B. D. Ali, B. W. Barau

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 318-328
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16584

The studies were conducted to evaluate the fish species diversity of two lakes viz: Kiri and Gyawana, at monthly intervals for the period of two years. Fish records were based entirely on the landings of fishermen. Fish were sorted into taxonomic groups, identified to family or species level, counted and weighed in groups by species. 57 species in 16 fish families were observed at Kiri Lake and 40 species in 16 fish families were observed at Gyawana Lake. There was no significant difference in species diversity within fish families in Kiri and Gyawana lakes (P>0.05). Under criteria 1 and 4 of the Ramsar, both Kiri and Gyawana Lakes were qualified as Ramsar sites. This result further confirmed how urgent and critical our natural wetland ecosystems especially the Kiri and Gyawana Lakes should be conserved.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ellagic Acid and Sodium Fluoride Intake on Total Sialic Acid Levels and Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Mouse Testicular Tissue

Inan Kaya, Haci Ahmet Deveci, Umit Volkan Ekinci, Muge Mavioglu Kaya, Merve Alpay

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 329-335
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19327

Aims: In the present study was aimed to investigate the levels of Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Sialic Acid (TSA) in the testis of mice treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) and ellagic acid (EA).

Methodology: Forty Swiss albino mice were randomized into 5 equal groups for 4 weeks as follows: Group I (control) received standart chow diet and drinking water. Group II, III, IV and V treated with subcutaneously 0.02% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 10 mg/kg/day EA in DMSO solution and 150 ppm/mouse/day NaF in drinking water and NaF plus EA, respectively. The levels of TOS, TAS and TSA were analyzed in the testis tissue by using spectrophotometric methods.

Results: EA treatment decreased levels of TOS and TSA during NaF uptake significantly. It was found to not create an important change on TAS levels of NaF received mice.

Conclusions: It was concluded that EA may be protective on testicular oxidative stress caused of fluoride.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Properties and Site Index in an Age Sequence of Gmelina arborea in Jalingo Taraba State, Nigeria

D. L. David, J. P. Yani, J. A. Wahedi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 336-342
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16587

Soil potential productivity and the site index in an age Gmelina arborea plantation in Jalingo forest plantation were studied. The plantations which were of different age variations, were mapped out into eight compartments with a measurement of 100 m x 100 m. For each of the compartment 16 plots were unmarked, 25 m x 25 m (0.0625 ha) out of which three plots was randomly selected as sampled plots. In each of the sampled plots, site factors were measured. In identifying mean trees, all the stems in each plot were distributed into basal area classes range as 15- 50 cm, 55-85 cm and 86-121 cm tagged A, B and C respectively. The soil samples were assessed in the laboratory for the physical and chemical properties. The results showed that soils in the Gmelina plantation are generally slightly acidic; and acidity increases with increase in the soil depth. For the height of Gmelina arborea plantation, the results showed that not all variables contributed fully to the growth and development of the trees height. Semi-log regression model seems to yield better of the equations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Quality Dynamics during Different Growth Stages of Corn (Zea mays, L.) Cultivation in Sri Lanka

T. K. Weerasinghe, K. T. G. K. Perera

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 343-351
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18892

Maize known as Corn is popular among farmers as a cost effective crop with limited fertilizers. Cutting down natural forests for the planting of monocultures has had drastic impact on the soil quality leading to changes in soil properties. In Sri Lanka, no studies have been carried out to assess the effect on the properties of soil due to Maize although it is one of the extensive monoculture crops at present. The objective of the present study is to find out the effects on soil properties due to Maize cultivation during the different growth stages of the crop. This information is expected to assist in making decisions for sustainable soil management. Standard methods were used in measuring soil properties. % moisture, permeability, conductivity, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), the total organic carbon (Corg) and microbial biomass (Cmic) are significantly higher at seedling stage than the harvesting stage indicating possible impacts on the quality of soil. There are very little differences between growing and blooming stage for all the tested parameters. The data on effects are positively correlating with each other displaying possible consequences due to maize monoculture. The Cmic/Corg ratios of soils were low during both seedling and harvesting stages suggesting reduced number of microorganisms in soil. However, comparatively higher microbial action has been observed during both growing and blooming stages due to fertilizers. The lowest microbial respiration data during harvesting stage in the present study clearly indicates the impacts of maize plant on the biological quality of soil. Pearson’s Correlation Matrix for Soil Properties reveals that there are positive correlations for pH, Conductivity, CEC and % Organic Carbon between growth and blooming stage. Slightly negative correlation for the microbial biomass indicated that biological quality is very slowly decreasing from growth to blooming. Our results suggest that there is a very clear indication that soil is slowly deteriorating with the growth of Maize and this could lead to serious situation with continuous growth of the same plant as practiced by Sri Lankan farmers.