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Open Access Short Research Article

Conserving the Hidden Nature: An Overview on Conservation Efforts in United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Umer Hafeez Goursi, Malik Rapaie, Abid Mehmood

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 408-414
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18928

The aim of the study is to document the threats faced by reptiles with other species in UAE and the conservation efforts done by Barari Forest Management (BFM). The study was conducted by reviewing the factors affecting the existing wildlife in 34 different sites under Barari Forest Management in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates from March to July, 2014. The data was collected using a combination of methods which included participatory observations and group discussions with local community including the residents, farmers, foresters, wildlife rangers / staff and field workers. The findings/ results of the study indicate that the major threats faced by existing herpeto-fauna and other associated wildlife in the study area were off road driving (25%) followed by desert safari (19%), human habitation (16%), illegal poaching (13%), human interaction (11%), habitat degradation (9%) and disturbance (7%). Majority of people (44.80%) believed that off road driving and desert safari are the most common threats to these reptiles and other wildlife, whereas 32.20% people thought that human interference and illegal poaching are the main cause of threats to reptiles and mammals, while 23% people didn’t know about the threats to herpeto-fauna. According to our findings 89.20% people liked wildlife including reptiles and mammals whereas, 10.80% respondents were indecisive and did not show much interest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Supplemental Pollination with Different Sources of Pollen in Olive (Olea europaea) ‘Manzanilla’ under Hot and Arid Environment

Grijalva-Contreras Raúl Leonel, Macías-Duarte Rubén, López-Carvajal Arturo, Martínez- Díaz Gerardo, Nuñez- Ramírez Fidel, Robles-Contreras Fabián

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 363-369
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19297

Aim: Insufficient fruit set is one of the most serious problems that affect the productivity of olive trees in desert area. The objective of this research was to evaluate the supplemental pollination from five different cultivars as sources of pollen for use on ‘Manzanilla’.

Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Mexico during 2010. Five sources of pollen (‘Barouni’, ‘Nocellara de Belice’, ‘Coratina’, ‘Sevillano’ and ‘Manzanilla’ (self-pollination) were tested. Three pollen applications were made (30 g ha-1) for the first application and 60 g ha-1 for each of the other two applications. 

Results: The germination of pollen grain derivative from the different cultivars was statistically similar, hovewer ranged from 42.1 to 53.5%. There was difference (P≤0.05) in fruit set, shotberry incidence and olive yield in ‘Manzanilla’ aftrer supplemental pollination by pollen derivative from diffrent cultivars compared to self-pollinated trees; the yield increased 28%. However, not significant differences were found for fruit set, shotberry or yield among the trees treated with the different sources of pollen, suggesting that ‘Manzanilla’ is self- incompatible and require cross-pollination to obtain sufficient yield.    

Conclusion: Supplemental pollination of ‘Manzanilla’ olive tree increases fruit yield under hot and arid environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morpho-Physiological Analyses of Selected Wheat Genotypes

Ikram ur Rahaman, Azhar Hussain Shah, Iffat Nawaz, Sahibzada Qayyum Ahmad, Habib Ahmad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 370-377
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/16689

Present research evaluated seventeen genotypes of wheat along with three check varieties (PS-05, Siran and Atta-Habib) under the field conditions of Agriculture Research Station (ARS) Baffa, Mansehra to identify the most suitable and high yielding variety based on morpho-physiological/agronomic traits. The experiment was carried out during 2013-14 in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data showed significant differences for almost all of the traits. Maximum spike length (14.5 cm, 14 cm, and 13.8 cm), number of grains per spike (95, 94 and 87) and grain yield (5825 kg ha-1, 5666 kg ha-1and 5567 kg ha-1) were recorded for genotypes 105, 108, 110 respectively. While maximum 1000 grain weight (60 gm, 50 gm and 48 gm), was recorded for genotypes 132, 105, 108 and 110 correspondingly. Similarly maximum number of tillers (13.5) and plant height (101.6) were recorded for genotypes 118 and 132 individually. On the other hand minimum days to germination (9), plant height (65.5), spike length (9.2), number of grain per spike (68.5), 1000 grain weight (40) and grain yield (2667 kg haˉ1) were observed in the genotypes A-Habib, 105, 117, 132, 101 and 126 respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that spike length, number of grains per spike and grain yield per hectare was positively and significantly correlated with each other. While significantly negative correlation was observed for plant height with spike length, number of grains per spike and grain yield per hectare. Due to high yielding ability the genotypes 105, 108 and 110 are recommended for general cultivation in Mansehra and similar climatic regions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Clastogenicity of SJG-136, A Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine DNA Interstrand Cross-linking Agent, in Comparison with Nitrogen Mustard (HN2)

F. A. Delmani, J. A. Hartley, D. E. Thurston

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 378-389
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19648

Aims: SJG-136 is a new pyrrolobenzodiazepine used as an anticancer drug with high cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cells and proved to produce interstrand crosslinks in the minor groove of DNA.

Methodology: In this work, SJG-136 (SG2000) was tested for its clastogenicity by calculating the rate of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), the mitotic index and the formation of micronuclei (MN) using the Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cell line.

Results: The results found showed that SJG-136 caused an increasing number of CAs especially chromatid and isochromatid breaks in comparison with nitrogen mustard (HN2) another well established anticancer drug extensively used as a DNA damaging agent, these CAs were shown to persist with time after treating cells with SGj-136. The mitotic index showed a delay in the cell cycle by more than 50% in cells treated with 0.1µM SJG-136 compared to a delay of 30-40% in cells treated with 10µM HN2. The MN test showed a clear increase of binucleated cells with MN with increasing concentrations of SJG-136 or HN2.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that SJG-136 appears to be stronger clastogenic agent compared with HN2 with high cytotoxicity and causing high number of CAs and MN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immune Modulation of Interleukin-1α by Noradrenaline and Cortisol in Women with PCOS (Psychoneuroimmunology Aspect)

F. Z. Zangeneh, M. M. Naghizadeh, M. Jafarabadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 390-398
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19397

Background & Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common complex condition in women associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Evidences from studies on women with PCOS and on an experimental rat PCO model suggest that the sympathetic regulatory drive to the ovary may be unbalanced (hyperactivity). The sympathetic nervous system (SAS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (cortisol) are the major integrative and regulatory components of different immune responses. The aims of this study were 1) to determine serum cytokines 2) The study of pattern four cytokines in PCO patients 3) Cross-talk between two super systems: SAS & Immune systems.

Methods: In this study, 171 women were divided into two groups: PCO (n=85) and control (n=86 non-PCOS). All women were between 20-40years old ages and their body mass index (BMI) was below 28. Serum cytokines: IL-17, IL-1α, IL-1β and TNFα concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were determined in both groups.

Results: The results showed that IL-17 in serum of patients with PCOS significantly lower than the control group (p<0.001). Interleukin 1 (alpha and beta) increased in the PCO group than the control group: Interleukin 1α (p<0.001) and IL-beta (p=0.017).

Discussion: The results of this study indicate that overactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in women with PCO impairs 1) three cytokines pattern and 2) the increased sympathetic outflow may be related to hormonal and metabolic features of this syndrome.

Conclusion: The activation of SNS during an immune response might be aimed to localize the inflammatory response. The results of this study confirm low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cell Viability, Acrosomal Status and DNA Integrity in Porcine Sperm Permeabilized with Streptolysin O

C. M. Valdés, M. Barrientos-Morales, M. B. Domínguez, A. P. Cervantes, B. A. Hernández, D. Romero-Salas

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 399-407
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14778

The aim of this study is to determine the use of streptolysin O (SLO), to open pores on the plasmatic membrane of the swine sperm, to see the effect on the viability, functional status and integrity of nuclear chromatin. 30 ejaculates were used; immediately after collection, semen was diluted in a solution of BTS (2:1, v/v preheated to 35ºC). Two aliquots of semen samples were assigned to each group, of which: Group 1. 0.3 IU/ml SLO, Group 2. 0.6 IU/ml, Group 3 1.2 IU/ml, and Group 4 Control (PBS). All groups were incubated for 5 minutes at 37ºC, in SLO; after this period, the samples were incubated in 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 15 minutes at 37ºC. Each treatment were evaluated before and after incubation with FBS (to close the pores), in duplicate. Sperm viability, acrosome status and integrity of the nuclear chromatin were evaluated with eosin nigrosine (NE), chlortetracycline (CTC) and acridine orange (AO) stains, respectively. The data obtained was analyzed by comparing proportions in each treatment using non-parametric module of STATISTICA V10.0 program. The Kruskal Wallis H test was used for the analysis. In assessing sperm viability each of the treatments were compared in between, and the resulting differences were also compared with the control group (iv). There was no difference in the proportion of viable sperm, using the concentration of 0.6 IU/ml, before and after sealing of pores (83.15±9.10 vs 91.52±4.83) (p>0.05). And mathematical trend indicates that, after sealing the pores, a higher sperm proportion were viable in both treatments. However, no statistical differences were found (P>0.05). Also no changes were found in patterns of acrosomal status and DNA integrity, suggesting that the SLO executes its permeabilizing effect at the level of sperm membrane.

Open Access Review Article

The Clinical and Translational Implications of Evolutionarily Preserved Intracellular Signalling Pathways

Gurdeep Singh Mannu, Angeline Bhalerao

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 352-362
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19599

Despite the range of cell types found in the animal kingdom, only a limited number of signalling pathways are required to generate them. Furthermore the basic components and design of these signalling pathways remain largely homologous across the animal kingdom despite species being separated evolutionarily from one another for millions of years. This article explores the fundamental signalling pathways that have been evolutionarily conserved in the midst of millions of years of selection and environmental pressures. Knowledge of the development of these pathways may aid us in understanding various human disease processes and help to develop possible therapeutic targets. The review explores the role of these intracellular pathways and what relevance they may have to the understanding of disease processes.