Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Raffia Palm Mesocarp on Haematological Parameters of Clarias gariepinus, a Common Niger Delta Wetland Fish

Elijah Ige Ohimain, Iniobong Reuben Inyang, George Umashi Osai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19065

Indigenous people of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria depend on fisheries as the main protein source. The mesocarp of raffia palm is used by the indigenous people to stupefy and catch fishes. The mechanism of action of the raffia palm mesocarp is not well understood. Hence, this study investigated the effect of raffia palm mesocarp on the haematological properties of African catfish. Thirty two juveniles of C. gariepinus (eight in each treatment) were exposed to graded sub-lethal doses (0.4 – 0.6 g/l) of Raphia hookeri fruit mesocarp in 4 plastic aquaria. Renewal of test media was done every 48 hours for 10 days. Results show that increasing concentration of raffia led to decreasing red blood cells, platelets and haemoglobin levels while increasing white blood cells, eosinophils and monocytes. Water quality analysis results corroborated the haematological analysis. Alkalinity and pH increased, while dissolved oxygen decreased as the concentration of raffia palm fruit mesocarp increases. We therefore conclude that the mode of action of raffia palm fruit mesocarp involved increased alkalinity and decreased oxygen tension in the water which temporarily stupefies fishes for easy catch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Antioxidants Changes and Grain Yield Variation under Drought Stress

Bahram Heidari, Zahed Khaledian, Ali Dadkhodaie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18751

Antioxidants provide a defense line against adverse effects of free radicals released in plant cells under drought stress. Accumulation of antioxidants may link with higher grain yield in environmental stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidants accumulation under drought stress and their relationship with grain yield variation. Reactions of 100 wheat landrace varieties and two commercial cultivars (Shiraz and Bezostaya) to drought stress were tested by two treatments’ including normally irrigation regime throughout the growth cycle and stopped irrigation from heading stage as drought stress in 2010-2011. Results indicated that drought stress triggers plant reactions via accumulation of proline as non-enzymatic and catalase and peroxidase as enzymatic-antioxidants. Correlation analysis showed that grain yield increases when antioxidants increase and proline was more responsive than other antioxidants in plants dealing with water deficit stress after heading. Genotypes had different reactions to drought stress and categorized in susceptible and tolerant groups. KC4144, KC4641, KC4779, KC3885, KC4529, KC4863, KC4907, KC4528, KC4511 and KC4840 had higher enzymatic activities. These genotypes that had highest grain yield in both irrigation and drought stress conditions can be used as parental lines in construction of mapping populations in order to locate QTLs responsible for drought tolerance. Therefore, categorizing studied genotypes as drought- tolerant and susceptible would help a better programming of breeding for higher grain yield and stability under low-income environments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of pH Alteration on the Free Radical Scavenging Ability and Other Antioxidant Properties of Reduced Glutathione

T. Ogunmoyole, I. J. Kade

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15680

Reduced glutathione (GSH), an endogenous antioxidant ubiquitously distributed in the physiological system has been widely reported to exhibit potent antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro. However, information regarding the effects of altered pH on its widely reported antioxidant properties still remains scanty in the literature. Hence, the present study is geared towards unraveling the effect of altered pH on the antioxidant properties of GSH in vitro. This was done by measuring the effects of pH (4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4 and 9.4) on some antioxidant parameters including free radical scavenging properties against 2, 2 - diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing properties, Fe2+- chelating properties and inhibition of both deoxyribose degradation and lipid peroxidation. Results indicated that in all antioxidant indices determined, pH alteration did not have any significant effect on the antioxidant activity of GSH in vitro. From the foregoing, it is obvious that GSH is a potential antioxidant that could be exploited for the management of pH implicated pathological conditions such as acidosis and alkalosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Parasites from Black Tiger Prawn; Peneaus monodon from Isaka River, Okirika Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

S. O. Nzeako, F. O. Nduka, M. N. Wogu, J. I. Monye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19302

Aims: To determine the parasitic fauna, site-specificity of the parasites in the host and the parasite load in relation to length, weight and sex of P. mondon.

Study Design: The study is a survey using prawns from Isaka River as a case study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study area is an armlet of the Nigerian Ports Authority highway-sea and samples were collected between December 2014 and January 2015.

Methodology: Cast and spread technique was adopted in the study. Fishing-net was used to collect samples from the River. The stratified random sampling method was used in selecting the 103 prawns examined in the study. The hemolymph of the prawn was extracted using a 2 ml syringe at the site of collection to maintain the integrity of the specimen and preserved in EDTA bottle. Samples were then preserved in an ice chest and transported to the laboratory for morphometric and growth parameters evaluation. Exo-secretions, gills, appendages and gastrointestinal contents of the prawns were evaluated using standard parasitological techniques. Identification of parasites was achieved using the compound light microscope and standard guides. Physiochemical parameters of the River were determined using standard techniques and equipment. Data was analyzed with Measures of Central tendencies and Analysis of Variance.

Results: The data revealed an overall prevalence of 97.09% in the study. However, females harbored (58%) more parasites than males (42%). Parasites belonging to four phyla; Nematoda 111(17.03%), Platyhelminthes 32(4.08%), Arthropoda 73(10.63%) and Protozoa 469(68.27%) were recovered from the study. Phylum Protozoa had the highest abundance of 475(68.27%) and had the highest parasite diversity of up to eight species. Faunal specificity revealed a total of 742 parasites comprising of (11.05%), Trichuris spp. (4.16%), Ascaris spp. (2.15%), Spirocamallanus spp. (2.82%), Hysterothylacium spp. (1.62%), Capillaria spp. (0.80%), Enterobius spp. (4.17%), Lernaea (3.23%), Trematode (5.64%), Nematopsis spp. (9.7%), Porospora spp. (11.96%), Haplosporidium spp. (11.29%), Blastodinium spp. (11.02), Vahlkampfia spp. (3.36%), Colacium spp. (5.64%), Paramoeba spp. (6.04%), Pekinsus spp. (3.62%), Tapeworm (1.21%), Diatoms (4.56%) and  Myzomolgus spp. (6.61%) were recovered. There were significant differences (P>0.05) in parasite loads in the examined animals in relation to the sex, body length, and weight. Site specific parasitism showed that the hemolymph had the highest parasite load of (80.58%) while the gastrointestinal tract had the highest diversity of parasites in the study. The physiochemical parameters of the water body varied from standards permissible in brackish water ecosystem.

Conclusion: The study revealed that P. monodon was highly susceptible to a wide range of parasites, attributable to the compromised ambient environmental status of the habitat and trophic affiliation of the prawns. The study states that the lipoproteins enriched hemolymph of P. monodon may have predisposed it to heavy parasitism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Climate Variability Impacts on the Population of the Oil Palm Leaf Miner in Nigeria

Aneni Thomas, Aisagbonhi Charles, Adaigbe Victor, Iloba Beatrice

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19895

This paper evaluates climate change and variability from 1961-2010 and projections up to 2050 and its impacts on the oil palm leaf miner - Coelaenomenodera elaeidis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in the study area. The study involved direct field insect pest surveys and assessments at the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) main station. A complete randomized design (CRD) was utilized. The leaf miner was sampled during 2009-2010 in oil palm fields and records from previous surveys from 1976-1980 were utilized. Climate variability projections up to 2050 were evaluated and impacts on the leaf miner evaluated. Time series analysis was conducted using Minitab 14.0. Least square method was used to estimate the trend in the series and the trend equations. Computed models for temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were Yt = 30.6174+3.51E -02*t; Yt = 163.829 - 0.112521*t and Yt = 68.8473 – 230E -02*t respectively where t is time. On this basis, a forecast up to 2050 was generated indicating an upward trend in temperature and a downward trend in rainfall and relative humidity. Specific forecast indices for 2050 were: Temperature: 33.8°C; Rainfall: 153.70 mm; and Relative humidity: 66.8%. The study has established an upward increase in temperature, attributed to climate change, with concomitant increase in leaf miner abundance between 1980 and 2010 The integration of weather forecasting with farmer action has great potential for control of insect pests in oil palm growing areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Vitamin D Levels and Severity of Asthma in Children

Ahmadipour Shokoufeh, Mohsenzadeh Azam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/17370

Introduction: Asthma is a common chronic disease and it is a cause of attending the emergency department, hospitalization, and school absences in children. Several studies recorded in various countries report the increased prevalence of about 50% per decade for childhood asthma. Vitamin D is an essential vitamin which has effects on function of the immune system. There are Different and conflicting studies about the association between low concentration of vitamin D levels and severity of asthma in children.

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D status and childhood asthma.

Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 134 children of 3-14 years old with asthma, who were hospitalized in 2014 in Madani Hospital in Khorramabad city, were investigated with regard to their age, gender, BMI, the use of inhaled corticosteroids, and serum levels of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D. The variables and their possible association with vitamin D deficiency in patients were investigated, using the collected data from the questionnaires and laboratory exams.

Findings: Mean age of the hospitalized children was 6.76±2.8 year. Mean serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma was, 58.8±24.7 mg/dL, regardless of its severity. Among all of the children with moderate persistent asthma, 13 subjects (52%) have had vitamin D deficiency and in children with mild persistent asthma, this value was 17.1%. In addition, 1.5% of the children with intermittent asthma have had serum vitamin D deficiency. According to Fisher's exact test, the difference in the frequency distribution of serum vitamin D status in children with asthma based on the severity of asthma was significant statistically (Pv<0.0001). In spite of lower serum vitamin D in obese and over-weighted children relative to the children with normal and low BMI, this difference was not statistically significant using one-way analysis of variance.

Conclusion: In higher severities of asthma, vitamin D deficiency is more evident. Therefore, sufficient amounts of vitamin D supplementation may be effective in reducing the severity of asthma in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cognitive Function in Male Track and Field Iranian National Team Athletes

Hossein Sepahvand, Ehsan Zareian, Hassan Aghaei, Hedayat Sahraei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18702

Background: Cognitive function including decision making and short term memory are affected by environmental factors including physical activity. Data showed that sustained physical activity can improve learning and memory. In the present research, cognitive functions of the Iranian track and field national team were evaluated and compared to the control group using PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) software. 

Materials and Methods: Ten male members from the athletics team of the Islamic Republic of Iran were selected (age: 26±3 years; weight: 69.2±2.7 kg; height: 178.4±7 cm) and 10 volunteered male students of Allame Tabatabaii University (age of 25±3 years; weight: 75.42±0.54 kg; height: 169.5±6.2 cm) were evaluated for their cognitive functions including general mental health, sustain attention, reaction time (processing speed), and mental fatigue using PASAT software. In addition, salivary cortisol level was measured in two groups.

Results: Salivary cortisol concentration was higher in the athletes than non-athletes group (P<0.001). General cognitive health and sustain attention also was increased in the athletes regarding the non-athletes group (P<0.05). Reaction time and mental fatigue was reduced with regard to the non-athletes group but was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: It seems that physical activity may increase brain cognitive functions which are manifested by better general cognitive health sustain attention increment, increase in processing speed as well as reduction in mental fatigue.