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Open Access Case study

Verruciform Xanthoma: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Finding

Usha Hegde, Vidya Gowdappa Doddawada, H. S. Sreeshyla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20286

Verruciform xanthoma is a rare clinicopathologic entity which occurs primarily in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of verruciform xanthoma based on the clinical findings alone. But the microscopic findings of the characteristic foam cells in the papillary portion of the connective tissue aids in its definitive diagnosis. The origin of the foam cells were thought to be epithelial/dermal dendritic cells (langerhans cells)/neural. But with the advent of immunohistochemistry, it has been established that the foam cells are of monocyte-macrophage lineage because of the strong positivity of these cells to CD-68 antibody. Although no specific etiologic agent or the exact mechanism of its etiopathogenesis is known, a local inflammation or trauma to various triggering factors along non-specific pathways has been suggested. Verruciform xanthoma is known to occur along with other epithelial lesions such as lichen planus, pemphigus etc, but no case has been reported to occur in the same area as the pre-existing site of oral submucous fibrosis in the same patient. This article presents a case of verruciform xanthoma on the left buccal mucosa of a male patient who had history of oral submucous fibrosis in the same area, along with the immunohistochemical findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Assessment of Picralima nitida Seeds on Oxidative Stress Parameters of Albino Rats

L. A. Nwaogu, A. A. Emejulu, A. C. Udebuani, U. Arukwe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18829

The effects of different percentage concentrations (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) of ground seeds of Picralima nitida on the concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of albino rats after 28 days were investigated. Albino rats fed without ground seeds of Picralima nitida served as the control. The concentrations of AA, GSH and the activities of SOD, CAT and LDH from groups of albino rats that were fed with different concentrations of ground seeds of Picralima nitida were determined/assayed using standard methods. Results showed that there were no significant (p<0.05) difference in the concentrations of glutathione of rats fed with 5% feed-formulated with ground seeds of Picralima nitida when compared to those of the control. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the concentrations of AA and activities of SOD, CAT and LDH in the rats fed with 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% when compared to those of the control. Also, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction observed in the glutathione concentration of rats fed with10%, 20% and 30% feed formulated with ground seeds Picralima nitida. The values obtained showed that, as the percentage concentration of ground seeds Picralima nitida in the formulated feed increased, the concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione decreased in contrast to the activities of SOD, CAT and LDH indicating that these changes are concentration-dependent. The high concentrations of the ground seeds of Picralima nitida in the formulated feed might have caused the observed changes in these oxidative stress parameters in the serum of experimental albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Maize Inbred Lines for Iranian maize mosaic virus (IMMV) Resistance

A. Estakhr, B. Heidari, A. Dadkhodaie, K. Izadpanah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20058

In present study, the putative resistance capacity of thirty five maize inbred lines against Iranian maize mosaic virus (IMMV) was studied. Reaction to IMMV was analyzed under natural field infection and controlled conditions in a greenhouse in 2010 and 2011. In the greenhouse experiments, the maize plants were inoculated at two-leaf stage using the planthopper Laodelphax striatellus. In the field trials, an early sowing cultivation was used to facilitate a higher infection rate. The responses of inbreds to IMMV were assessed by symptom development and ELISA. The rate of natural infection of IMMV in susceptible control (SC704) was about 20%. MO17 showed about 40% infection in the first year. Both field and greenhouse results confirmed that MO17 was more susceptible to IMMV than SC704 and more reliable to be used as susceptible control in future studies of IMMV. Sowing one row of SC704 as vector spreader between every 5 rows of inbred lines caused sufficient vector propagation and virus transmission. Results of both field and greenhouse experiments showed little and no IMMV infection on K1263/1 and K3547/5, respectively. Hence, they were considered as IMMV-resistant. These lines with CIMMYT origin can also be used for production of resistant hybrids. Results showed that resistance to IMMV was not associated with maize maturity because resistance and susceptibility were found in both early and late matured inbred lines. Disease incidence and ELISA values were strongly correlated. Reduced plant height, ear weight and ear diameter and length and delayed silking were observed in plants infected with IMMV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Deionization Water Treated with Different Dose of Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3) on Creatinine and Liver Enzymes of Wistar Rats

E. I. Salah, M. K. Sabahelkhier, Shama I. Y. Adam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20222

The experiment was done in Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Aluminum chloride is used as coagulant for treatment the drinking water in AlMogran Water Treatment Plant, Khartoum State, Sudan. The study aimed at assessing the concentrations of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) and creatinine of Wister rats treated orally with Aluminum chloride by using deionization water. Fifty adults rats (average body weight about 109 g) were divided into five groups (10 male per group) as follows Group one (G1) represented control (without treatment), Group two (G2) received tap water, Group three (G3) received 50 mg/kg/day deionizing water treated with AlCl3, Group four (G4) received 60 mg/kg/day deionizing water treated with dose of AlCl3 and Group five (G5) received 70 mg/kg/day deionizing water treated with dose of AlCl3.

The treatments were given orally by gavages and continued daily for 60 days. Then blood sample was collected from each rat and measured for liver enzymes and kidney creatinine. The results showed that AlCl3 had led to a significant increase in liver enzymes and kidney creatinine (P≤ 0.05). In addition histopathology of liver of rats in G4 (60 mg \ kg Al C3) was showed severe necrosis, while the kidney showed packing, dilatation of renal tubules and degeneration compared with control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes in Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats Following Exposure to Diet Incorporated with Locally Processed Fish

L. A. Nwaogu, G. O. C. Onyeze

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18830

Biochemical changes in tissues of Wistar albino rats following exposure to feed formulated with different percentage concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20%) of smoked fish after 28 days were investigated. Albino rats fed with animal feed without smoked fish served as the control. The concentrations of ascorbic acid, glutathione (GSH), total protein, albumin, globulin as well as the activities of catalase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined/ assayed respectively, using standard methods. The results showed that there were no significant (p>0.05) differences in these parameters from rats fed with 5% smoked fish when compared to those of the control. However, there were a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the concentrations of ascorbic acid, glutathione, total protein, albumin, globulin and the activity of catalase in albino rats fed with feed formulated with 20% in contrast to increase in activity of lactate dehydrogenase in smoked fish-fed rats when compared to the control. The values obtained showed that, as the percentage of smoked fish in the formulated feed increased from 10%, the concentrations of ascorbic, glutathione and total protein (albumin and globulin) decreased. The catalase activity decreased in contrast to lactate dehydrogenase whose activity increased, indicating that the changes were concentration-dependent. The results obtained might in part indicate that the local process of smoking of fish, which involved high temperature and smoke could have induced synthesis of harmful substances probably [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs)] in the smoked fish. These harmful substances might have caused the observed changes in the concentrations and activities of these oxidative stress parameters in the rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aquaculture Feeding Practices on Commercial Fish Farming in Rawalpindi District, Pakistan

Atufa Kawan, Zubair Anjum, Durre Shahwar, Maratab Ali Awan, Faraz Akrim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20038

A field survey was carried out in three tehsils namely Rawalpindi, Gujar khan  and Kahuta) of Rawalpindi district. A predefined questionnaire was used to gather the information. In the studied farms the average stocking rate of 1200 fingerlings/acre with average weight of 4 grams were stocked. The fingerlings were fed with constant feeding rate of 3% of their body weight. On average the fish ponds have been fertilized with 9-12 kg-1acre-1week-1 cow dung and poultry droppings as organic fertilizer, 5 kg/acre/week urea and 3 kg-1acre-1week-1 DAP (diammonium phosphate) as inorganic fertilizer. Highest production obtained with balanced supplemented followed by standard feed and conventional feed for Labeo rohita (373.56, 344.26 and 286.40 kg/acre/year respectively). Cirrhinus mrigala highest production was with balanced supplemented and standard feed (304.22  and 282.71 kg/acre/year) and lowest with conventional feed (207.22 kg-1acre-1year-1), Ctenopharyngodon idella highest production was with balanced supplemented feed (361.24 kg-1acre-1year-1) and lowest production (212.15 and 205.31 kg/acre/year) with both standard and conventional feed  and  Hypophthalmichthys molitrix production was non significant for balanced supplementary feed (309.53 kg-1acre-1year-1), standard feed (194.24 kg-1acre-1year-1) and conventional feed (133.90 kg-1acre-1year-1). The present study and statistical analyses revealed that the balanced supplementery feed produced a significant yield in carp culture. Based on this study, the balanced supplementery feed ingredients are highly affected by fishes and its inclusion in formulated feed for beneficial to carp culture.

Open Access Review Article

Bioactive Compounds of the Salivary Glands from Aedes aegypti with Anti-Hemostatic Action

Bruno Marcel Silva de Melo, Norma Luciene Lima da Silva, Rafaelli de Souza Gomes, Kely Campos Navegantes, Ana Lígia de Brito Oliveira, Lorena Almeida, Carolina Heitmann Mares Azevedo, Marta Chagas Monteiro

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20322

Blood-sucking arthropods evolved a salivary cocktail of anti-hemostatic, platelet antiaggregant and vasodilators components that neutralize the effects of hemostasis and allow a successful blood supply occurs. In salivary glands from Aedes aegypti was found several components with anti-hemostatic action that inhibit the platelet aggregation and coagulation. These anticoagulants can prevent clot formation during the ingestion and digestion of blood meals by the Ae. aegypti insect. Thus, this review focused in Ae. aegypti saliva components that have anticlotting action and that has potential sources of novel pharmacologically active molecules, as potential therapeutic of new cardiovascular and anti-thrombotic drugs.