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Open Access Minireview Article

European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758) As a Sentinel Species in Europe to Study the Effects of Contaminants

Daniela Conti, Stefania Balzamo, Andrea Paina, Cristina Martone, Elisa Raso, Fabio Cadoni, Federica Savorelli, Manorama Croppo, Vanessa Bellaria, Alessandra Pati

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20527

Aim: The current study was designed to evaluate whether European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758) can be used as a sentinel species to test contaminants. For this aim the acute lethality (96 h) of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on sea bass juveniles at two different water salinity percentages (20‰ and 5 ‰) were tested in order to assess how the water salinity may affect the sensitivity of the sea bass to SDS. A comparison with results from scientific literature especially freshwater species was also reported.

Study Design: Five different sized fish groups (from 0.068 g to 1.42 g) were assessed in 96-h semi-static tests according to OECD guideline n. 203 (1992). The average 96h-LC50 (plus 95% confidence interval) values were calculated using SDS nominal concentrations.

Results: At a percentage of salinity of 20‰, the 96h-LC50 values increased from 5.76 mg/l to 9.50 mg/l increasing the size of juveniles as well. SDS at a salinity of 5‰, was always found to be significantly less toxic (96h-LC50: from 13.50 mg/l to 14.87 mg/l) independently of fish size.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that the characteristics of D. labrax make this species useful to provide information of toxicity in both seawater and freshwater. Its ease of maintenance and testing under laboratory conditions, and its broad euryhalinity confirm the convenience of use it as a sentinel species for detecting environmental impact and as a rule in monitoring studies. A comparison with other Italian and international data on sea bass is reported.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gastrointestinal Helminth Infections in a Ruminant Livestock Farm in Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria

Ogudo Uche Sylvia, Oluwole Akinola Stephen, Mogaji Hammed Oladeji, Adeniran Adebiyi Abdulhakeem, Alabi Oladimeji Micheal, Ekpo Uwem Friday

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18812

Aim: This study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in ruminant livestock at DUFARMS holding of the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, in Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place of Study: The study was conducted in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria between November 2013 and August 2014.

Methodology: Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of 170 ruminant livestock and processed using ether-concentration method before examination for gastrointestinal helminth ova under the microscope. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively using SPSS 20.0 software and results were considered statistically significant at p<0.05.

Results: Of the 170 livestock examined, 100 (58.8%) were cattle, 40 (23.5%) were sheep and 30 (17.6%) were goats. Majority of the livestock were females 123 (72.4%) and 47 (27.6%) were males. The overall prevalence for any gastrointestinal helminth infection during the study was 76.5%. Goats were the most infected with a prevalence rate of 96.7%, followed by sheep (82.5%) and cattle (68%). Of the gastrointestinal helminths observed, Strongyle worms were the most predominant with 93.3% prevalence in goats, 77.5% in sheep and 33% in cattle. Other intestinal helminths recorded were Nematodirus spp, Moniezia spp, Paramphistomum spp, Fasciola spp, Toxocara spp and Trichuris spp. Significant differences do not exist (p>0.05) for prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infection by sex, age or breed of the  animals examined.

Conclusion: The study showed that gastrointestinal helminth infections are widespread among ruminant livestock of DUFARMS which might have a negative implication on productivity. Therefore, improving farm management system and routine deworming of farm animals is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Primary and Secondary Humoural Immune Response to Anti-Rabies Vaccination in Dogs Experimentally Infected with Single Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense Infections and Treatment with Diminazene Aceturate

R. I. O. Nwoha, B. M. Anene

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/18464

Trypanosomosis is a disease that causes extensive physiopathological effect in the blood and tissues which may affect normal immune response in the infected host. The condition is exacerbated by the seeming existence of some resistant strains of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense) which have become a menace to chemotherapy in trypanosomosis. These challenges enabled the research into the impact of experimental infections of single Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) and Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense) and response to treatment on primary and secondary humoral immune response to anti-rabies vaccination in dogs. Twelve (12) dogs grouped into 3 with 4 members each were used. Group 1 was the uninfected control, GPII was infected with T. congolense and GPIII was infected with T. brucei. Prior to infection, the experimental groups were first vaccinated with antirabies vaccine. Three weeks post vaccination both T.congolense and T. brucei infections were done on GPII and GPIII respectively. The prepatent period was 5.00 ± 1.30 days in T. brucei and was 14.00 ± 1.40 days in T. congolense infected groups. The serological results show that Rabies Passive Haemagglutination Test (RPHAT) could be used to assay for post antirabies vaccination antibody responses with reproducible results. A week post vaccination, the antibody titer in all the vaccinated groups (GPI, GPII, and GPIII) significantly increased (p < 0.05) and peaked at 3 weeks after vaccination. Subsequently, at week 7, there was a gradual significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the antibody production against rabies virus in the trypanosomes infected groups (GPII and GPIII). Treatment with diminazene aceturate did not significantly (p < 0.05) improve antibody response in the dogs. A secondary vaccination administered 12 weeks post- primary vaccination significantly increased (p < 0.05) the antibody titer with a peak at 3 weeks post- secondary vaccination. The study shows that both T. brucei and T. congolense suppress primary antibody response to vaccination which did not improve with treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Studies of the Forelimb Skeleton of the Orange Rumped Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758)

Venkatesan Sundaram, Nicole Dumas, Andrew Adogwa, Suresh Rao, Shivananda B. Nayak

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/21814

The aim of the study is to document the morphological details of the forelimb bones of the orange rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The bones were collected from 12 adult animals of both sexes. Each limb comprised of 47 bones (30 bones, 17 sesamoid bones). The clavicle was poorly developed while the metacromion process of the scapula was very well developed. The humerus was peculiar, displaying poorly developed deltoid tuberosity, teres tubercle and the crest of the humerus and complete absence of the musculospiral groove. The distal extremity of the humerus was wide and presented a well-developed lateral epicondyle. The radius and ulna were separated and the ulna was larger and longer. The radial tuberosity was absent and semilunar notch of the ulna was deeper. The proximal row of carpals comprised of only two bones viz., radio-intermediate and ulnar carpal along two sesamoid bones viz., radial and accessory sesamoid bones on the palmar face. The manus presented five long, relatively thin metacarpal bones and five digits. The first digit was shorter with two phalanges whereas the other digits presented three phalanges. In conclusion, the features in the forelimb bones of the D. leporina reflected a wide functional spectrum, which include fast running, digging and shoveling. However, predominant features of the forelimb typified the D. leporina as cursorial rodents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Haematological Assessment of Croton tiglium Seeds Mixed with Animal Diet in Male Albino Rats

H. H. El-Kamali, A. M. E. Omran, M. A. Abdalla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/19801

Aim: The present study evaluates the toxic effects of Croton tiglium seeds mixed with animal diet on plasma and blood parameters in male albino rats.

Methodology: Eighteen adult albino male rats, of age 6-8 weeks with an average body weight 120-160 grams, were used in this study. After acclimatization period the animals were divided into 3 groups each of 6, and they treated as follow: Group (I): given normal animals and served as control. Group (II) and (III): were given a mixture of animal’s diet with Croton tiglium crushed seeds at concentrations of 10% or 20% respectively. The experiment was conducted for two weeks.

During the experiment, animal’s body weight was taken weekly, clinical observations and mortality were also recorded daily. At the end of the experiment, animals were slaughtered and blood samples were collected into bottles containing no anticoagulant the blood samples were allowed to clot and serum was obtained by centrifuging at 1609.92 g for 5 minutes, the clear serum was removed by pipetting and some of biochemical variables were then determined. The other part of the blood was collected into Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) – containing samples bottles for haematological analysis.

Results: Blood glucose levels of rats fed a diet containing Croton tiglium seeds show a significant decrease in the concentration of both treated groups compared with control group. Total protein, albumin and globulins in animals in groups who fed with a diet containing 10% and 20% Croton tiglium plant seeds were at the same levels of their values in control rats and no significant changes in these parameters compared with the control. Urea showed a significant increase. A significant increase in total cholesterol concentration in group III and non significant increase in group II compared with group 1 at P≤ 0.05. No significant change in activity between control and treated animals was occurred in Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, while Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity showed significant decrease in group 3 who fed a diet containing 20% Croton seeds and an elevation of about 20% to animals in group II. Haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells count (RBCs) and Packed cell volume (PCV) showed significant increase values over control when rats fed with a diet containing either 10% or 20% crude Croton tiglium plant at P ≤ 0.05, and significant decrease in Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Other parameters, White blood cells count (WBCs), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and Lymphocytes (LYM) showed no remarkable alteration from control values at either dose treatment.

Conclusion: Croton seeds administration at doses of 10% and 20% have little effect on some haematological indices specially those relating to red blood cell and white blood cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Short-term Repeated Oral Administration of Potassium Cyanide on Some Haematological Indices and Internal Organs Morphology of Rabbits

Igbokwe Casmir Onwuaso, Omoja Valentine Uneojo, Ubachukwu Chidiebere

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/21828

This study investigated the effects of short-term repeated oral administration of sub-toxic dose of potassium cyanide on the haematological indices and the structure of the thyroid, liver, adrenal, and spleen of rabbits. A total of 16 rabbits, weighing 1.2±0.2 kg were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control, and the animals were treated with 10 mL/kg body weight of distilled water per os. Group 2 was treated with 0.3 mg/kg potassium cyanide (KCN) in distilled water per os. Results revealed atrophy and distended thyroid follicles with flattened epithelial cells only in the cyanide treated group. The liver revealed severe periportal lymphocytic infiltration only in the cyanide treated animals, coupled with focal areas of hepatocellular coagulative necrosis, and cholangitis. The spleen revealed mild congestion of the red pulp in both treated and control groups, while hemosiderosis was seen only in the cyanide treated group. There was no visible lesion in the adrenal gland. The values of parameters evaluated in the KCN- treated animals were as follows: Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (33.25±2.4%), Red blood Cell Count (RBC) (6.93±0.7 x 106/μL), TWBC (Total White Blood cell Count) (9.4±1.0 x103/μL), Haemoglobin Concentration (HC) (14.7±1.9 g/dL), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (29.8±5.7 IU/mL),  Alanine amino transaminase (ALT) (12.8±1.8 IU/mL) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (48.0±5.7 IU/mL). Those of controls were PCV (31.0±0.94%), RBC (5.45 ± O.3 x106/μL), TWBC (6.8±0.43 x103/μL), HC (11.07±0.94 g/dL), AST (16.33±0.3 IU/mL), ALT (8.33±1.0 IU/mL), ALP (23.7±2.8 IU/mL). There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the haematological indices of the treated and the control group. AST and ALP of the treated group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control.

Open Access Review Article

Taxonomic Relationships and Biochemical Genetic Characterization of Brassica Resources: Towards a Recent Platform for Germplasm Improvement and Utilization

Mohamed A. El-Esawi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/20645

The genus Brassica L. is one of the most economically important genera in the family Brassicaceae. It has an essential role in agriculture and horticulture, as well as contributing to the economy and populations health. This genus includes numerous species comprising major vegetable and oilseed crops with various agronomic traits that need to be further characterized. The present paper highlights the current knowledge of taxonomy, chromosome number, genomic relationships, geographical distribution, origin, domestication, and breeding technologies of the six economically important Brassica species grown in Egypt, as well as describing their genetic diversity and relationships at the level of biochemical markers, including storage proteins and isozymes. This information would help developing new and more productive crops of disease resistant and highly agronomic traits, resulting in a recent platform for crop improvement and conservation.