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Open Access Case study

Feline Mesenteric form of Multinodal Lymphoma: A Case Report

M. Chandrasekar, S. Venkatesan, N. Sai Aravindh, A. P. Nambi, P. S. Thirunavukkarasu, S. R. Srinivasan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22436

Introduction: Feline lymphoma is one of the most important forms of tumor which is not completely understood. Complications and pathogenesis of tumor growth and development is quite difficult to diagnose due to varied etiology and pathogenesis. Mesenteric form of lymphoma is quite rare (8-18%) in felines and tumor regression and palliation are quite challenging in these patients.

Case Presentation: An 8 year old, desi, short-hair breed feline was reported to the hospital with the consistent respiratory distress and abnormally swollen neck for the past two weeks. The feline was a recently adopted stray pet and the preventive strategies like vaccination, birth control etc., were not undertaken as per the history collected. The animal was diagnosed as stage IV high grade, anaplastic large cell lymphoma after employing various diagnostic strategies. The animal was treated with University of Wisconsin-Madison Modified Chemotherapy Protocol which led to the successive regression of the condition.

Conclusion: Lymphoma is one of the common hematological malignancies of felines whose management still remains challenging. There are various forms of lymphoma depending on the site of occurrence and metastasis. Chemotherapy and surgical options are the best available strategies in management of lymphoma. Multi-nodal lymphoma is occur in10-20% of the felines. Chemotherapy protocol as standardized by the University of Wisconsin-Madison is still efficient in management of lymphoma in felines irrespective of the stage and clinical grade of presentation.

Open Access Minireview Article

Trace Elements as Potential Biomarkers of Preeclampsia

Arroyo-Helguera Omar Elind

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/20342

Pregnancy is one of the most important physiological processes of human beings. Adequate nutrition of the mother during this stage has great influence on fetal growth and development, the fetus is totally dependent on the mother to get all the nutrients through the placenta. Malnutrition and poor nutrition are associated with deficiency of micronutrients and pregnancy complications as preeclampsia; this hypertensive disease is characterized by an increased of blood pressure, proteinuria, and complication as hemorrhage and stroke, being one of the main causes of maternal death. This article described the daily consumption of the main trace elements required to maintain a healthy pregnancy. Also is described the deficiency of serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, iodine, zinc, magnesium, selenium, copper, fluoride; the excess of iron and its association with preeclampsia disease. Also, this review compiles the concentrations reported of trace elements and are compared in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. Furthermore is reviewed their possible use as biomarkers for detection of preeclampsia during pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Meristem Culture for Rapid Regeneration of Papaya Plantlets in Liquid Media

E. K. Gatambia, Agnes W. Kihurani, Fredah K. Rimberia, Monica M. Waiganjo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22056

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important crop in Kenya, produced both for local consumption and export. Papaya propagation via seeds makes it difficult in differentiating gender at seedlings phase. However, in vitro system could offer a solution to this problem. This study was an attempt to determine rapid in vitro methods for regeneration of papaya plantlets using liquid and semi solid/liquid double layer media and different concentration of growth regulators. Shoot meristems were harvested from hermaphrodite 30 cm tall papaya seedlings raised in greenhouse and cultured in Murashige and Skoog basal media supplemented with 30 g-1 sucrose, and different concentrations of hormones which were treatments in liquid medium. The treatments comprised five levels (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) of mg.L-1 2 Chloro 4 Pyridy – N Phenyl-urea (CPPU) in liquid and semi-solid/liquid double layer combination for shoot induction. For root initiation, four levels of Indole-3butyric acid (IBA) (0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg.L-1) were used. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with 3 replicates. Number of shoots, shoot length and leaf number were recorded every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. The percentage number of shoots that produced roots was also recorded. There was significant differences between the liquid and semi-solid /liquid media and the level of hormones used on shoot induction. The highest number of shoots (10), shoot length and number of leaves was recorded in the semisolid/ liquid double layer combination with CPPU at 0.15 mg.L-1. The highest root initiation (73.33%) was at 3.0 mg.L-1 of IBA. Results indicated that semi-solid/liquid double layer combination could be used for rapid regeneration of papaya plantlets of known gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Cell Proliferation from Broccoli Root Tips in vitro Culture Using Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) and Benzylaminopurine (BAP)

A. B. M. Sharif Hossain, Nasir Adam Ibrahim, Mohammed Aleissa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22417

Significance of the Study: Cell or tissue culture from root tips, shoot tips and leaf cuttings plays a significant role in micro-propagation in the plant production industry. Nowadays, it has been successfully done from many fruits, vegetables, ornamental and forest plants. Millions of explants can be produced by tissue or cell culture per year in any plant production industry.

Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the root, shoot and leaf formation from the root tip cultures using different IAA, IBA and BAP concentrations.

Methodology: IAA, IBA and BAP concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mg/l combined with MS media were used in broccoli root tip culture.

Results: The results showed that root and callus formation were done successfully. But there was no shoot and leaf formation. The highest number (3.5) of callus proliferation was found in the concentration of IAA 1.5 and IBA 1.5 mg/l combination having BAP 1.0 mg/l. Moreover, root formation was found initially in the concentration of IAA 1-2.0 and IBA 1-2.0 mg/l combined with 1.5 mg/l BAP. In addition, later on it was found in the concentration of IAA 0.25-2.5 and IBA 0.25-2.5 mg/l combined with 1.5-2.5 mg/l BAP compared to other combination of concentrations.

Conclusion: Therefore present results showed that it was better to use the combination of the IAA, BAP and IBA concentration to produce root proliferation and callus formation of broccoli using root tip cultures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Stability of Arterial Pressure and Pulse at Changes of Geomagnetic Data and Atmospheric Pressure

Olesja Isaikina, Yuriy Kuksa, Igor Shibaev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/21656

This work analyses annual blocks of daily observations of pulse with arterial blood pressure (ABP) and interrelation between them. Dynamics of morning and evening parameters is compared, behavior of atmospheric pressure and geomagnetic activity is correlated. Pulse and arterial blood pressure are evaluated during periods of more active behavior of patient (expeditions, business trips, holidays, etc), as well as during moments of considerable deviations of atmospheric pressure from annual average value. Regular (in the morning after sleep and in the evening) observations of heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DABP) are used. These observations are conducted by the patient (man with 2 step and 2 stage hypertensive disease, 1940 year of birth) within the program of ABP self-control. Values of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure, drawn in for correlation, are tied to patient’s place of residence (Troitsk, Moscow). This study is based upon series reflecting in time dynamics of correlation coefficients, which were received during simultaneous scanning of characteristics under study. Such series of correlation coefficients of medical parameters, analogue of degree of organism coordination are taken as the basis and compared with changes of environmental parameters. The suggested approach made it possible to single out situations, at which interrelations of pulse and ABP may be compared with concrete environmental conditions. A number of differences in characteristics of morning and evening series of monitoring may be tied with rapid relaxation of organism during night from rhythmical activity and enhanced sensitivity of organism in the morning to background effect. The considered material has confirmed effectiveness of self-control of ABP for its control and during selection, if necessary, of antihypertensive drug, which ensures normal patient’s vital activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microhabitat Ecology of Mosquitoes in Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs

Ogugua K. Ogbalu, John N. Onwuteaka

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22751

The relative abundance of the of three mosquito groups namely Anopheles, Culex and Aedes distribution was studied within Port Harcourt Metropolis (latitude 4°43’E – 4°50’ E and longitude 6o 57’N – 7°05’N). Collections of mosquitoes and the volume of water were from twenty three microhabitats. The microhabitats were subdivided into Human_Use micro-habitats (HUM) and Vegetation microhabitats (VDM). The results show the dominance of three mosquito groups belonging to three genera (Anopheles, Culex and Aedes species. From a total of 2101 mosquito larvae, Vegetation derived microhabitats showed 526 (10.6%) were from Paw-Paw Stems; 485 (9.7%) from Flower Pots; 406 (8.2%) from Coconut husks; 317 (6.4%),from Palm tree trunk; 110 (2.2%) from tree trunks; 65 (1.3%) from Pine Apple axils; 61 (1.2%) from Banana axils; 53 (1.1%) from Cocoyam axils; 46 (0.9%) from Plantain axils and 32 (0.7%) from mushrooms. From a total of 3357 mosquito larvae the mosquito abundance from human-derived microhabitats shows a total of 637 (12.4%) were from Septic tanks, 485 (9.7%) from flower pots, 455 (9.2%) from Refuse Dumps, 410 (8.2%) from Cups, 340 (6.8%) from Containers, 291(5.9%) from Earthenware Pots, 287 (5.8%) from Plastic Chairs, 125 (2.5%) from Plastic shoes, 110 (2.2%) from leather shoes, 93 (1.6%) from Sachet water, 66 (1.6%) from Plastic plates, 30 (0.6%) from Spoons, 19 (0.4%) from Canvas shoes and 10 (0.3%) from Cream Containers. No marked significant difference among the microhabitats (p < 0.05) were shown from an ANOVA analysis between the Human_Use derived micro-habitats (HUM) and Vegetation derived microhabitats (VDM). The likely adaptation to diversity of habitats is adduced as a function of oxygen availability with the right physicochemical conditions especially for the Anopheles group. Further studies on a geographic scale are needed to identify the inherent risk of any emerging ecological adaptations and potential threat to public health. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Study of 33 Dogs Diagnosed with Osteosarcoma (OSA) by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) at FMVZ Vet Hospital, UNESP-Botucatu, SP

Maurício Orlando Wilmsen, Tália Missen Tremori, Noeme Sousa Rocha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22707

Aim of Study: Evaluate cases of dogs with osteosarcoma, when diagnoses using FNAC.

Study Design: A retrospective study, from archive at Veterinary Hospital, selected 33 dogs of different races, 23 females (69.6%) and 10 males (30.3%) were addressed, the age of tested dogs ranged from 1 to 15 years, with diagnoses of osteosarcoma using FNAC. These animals are classified according to localization of tumor, cytopathology evaluation and radiography exam.  

Results: In this study, a general OSA prevalence on appendicular skeleton of 90.9% (30), being humerus and axial skeleton 9.1% (3). Likewise, the highest age incidence ranged from 6 to 15 years (78.7%). 33 of 24 animals (72.7%) had tumor complications in forelimbs discriminated from high to low incidence: 17 (51.5%) left forelimbs (LFL,) and 7 (27.3%) right forelimbs (RFL). Cancer signs also appeared in axial skeleton of 2 individuals (6.5%), and paranasal sinus of another (3.2%). Cytoplasmic and nuclear characteristics showed atypical mitosis in 31 (93.9%), and multinucleated cells in 33 (100%) on evaluated specimens.

Conclusion: The use of FNAC demonstrated to be a simple, quick, efficient, minimally invasive, and inexpensive diagnostic tool.