Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Control of Microbial Contamination of Sweet Potatoes Cultured with Nodal Explants

Solomon Amissah, Priscilla A. Coleman, Henry Y. Sintim, Richard Akromah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22995

The use of nodal explants for in vitro propagation promotes direct regeneration of cultures, but may cause high levels of microbial contamination due to large size of the explants. We evaluated different surface sterilization protocols, and inclusion of antibiotics and fungicides in growth medium to control microbial contamination of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) propagated in vitro with nodal explants. Three surface sterilization methods (low- 70% ethanol for 1 min, followed by 10% NaOCl for 15 mins; moderate- 70% ethanol for 3 mins, followed by 20% NaOCl for 10 mins; and high- 90% ethanol for 3 mins, followed by 30% NaOCl for 10 mins), plus a control where only distilled water was used to rinse the explants, were assessed. In addition, hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium was amended with different rates of Chloramphenicol and Benomyl. The results showed high levels of direct regeneration of plantlets, but microbial contamination was also high, which emanated from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Surface sterilization without medium amendments controlled mainly the exogenous contaminants, but endogenous contaminants were still problematic, leading to the contamination of cultures even 4 wks after inoculating. Amending the culture medium with Chloramphenicol and Benomyl, reduced microbial contamination but it inhibited the growth of plantlets. In general, the moderate surface sterilization plus amending the culture medium with 0.5 g l-1 Chloramphenicol and 0.1 g l-1 Benomyl was the most effective in reducing contamination and causing minimal inhibition to plantlet growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intra-articular Injection of Ascorbic Acid and Dexamethasone for Management of Osteoarthritis in Dogs

Abhishek Bandodkar, B. Justin William, T. A. Kannan, A. Arun Prasad, M. Bharathidasan, R. Jayaprakash, Ravi Sundar George

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23345

Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects and clinical outcome of intra-articular administration of ascorbic acid and dexamethasone for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Study Design: The study was conducted on 6 clinical cases of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis in hip (n-2) and stifle (n=4). The study was conducted on dogs reported to Madras Veterinary College Teaching hospital as confirmed by clinical examination and x-ray.

Methodology: Ascorbic acid and dexamethasone in phosphate buffer mixture (ADM) was prepared using dexamethasone and ascorbic acid injection (Indian Pharmacopeia) each at the dose of 0.8 to 4 mg and 5 mg/ml concentration in one to two ml of sterile phosphate buffer solution, for intra-articular injection. The mixture was administered intra-articularly through ultrasound guidance. The clinical outcome and benefits were assessed by clinical improvements, x-ray and ultrasound.

Results: Significant improvement could be noticed in all cases after 14th day of administration as evident by clinical, radiographical and ultrasound.

Conclusion: The ascorbic acid-dexamethasone mixture in phosphate buffer solution injected intra-articularly for the management of osteoarthritis had exhibited promising results in the clinical cases and has emerged as an exciting and novel alternative to the conventional management modalities involving the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, chondroprotectives, corticosteroids and surgical procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasites in Cockroaches Recovered from Residential Houses around Awotan Dumpsite in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

O. A. Morenikeji, A. Adebiyi, O. A. Oluwayiose

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/19881

Residences clustering around dumpsites have increased tremendously due to recent population expansion, consequent insufficient land, high level of ignorance and poor economic status in Nigeria. One of the reasons open dumpsites pose health problems is because of their attraction of cockroaches which are known vectors of appreciable numbers of pathogen. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in cockroaches recovered from residential houses around Awotan dumpsite in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state.

Cockroaches were trapped using the sticky trap method and were washed using 2 mL normal saline solution. This solution was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 mins and the sediment was stained with Lugol’s iodine and viewed under the microscope.

Out of the seventy cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) that got trapped and examined within the study period, a total of 61(87.1%) were infected with helminth and/or protozoan parasites. Parasites recovered and identified included Strongyloides stercoralis (80.6%), Nyctotherus ovalis (7.9%), Hammersmiditiella diesingi (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (1.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%) and a fluke (4.3%). More parasites (83.5%) were recovered from the gut than the external body part (16.5%) of the infected cockroaches.

Residents around the dumpsites are prone to parasitic infestation through mechanical transmission of parasites by cockroaches. There is therefore the need for government to ensure a relocation of the dumpsite to a distant place and also enlighten people on the immense dangers involved in residing close to dumpsites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sequence Variation in the rDNA Region of Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) Infecting Indigenous Leafy Vegetables in Kisii and Transmara Sub-counties, Kenya

J. M. Mwangi, C. Gichuki, W. Wanjohi, S. Runo, P. K. Maina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/17985

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of DNA sequencing in differentiating Root-Knot Nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne spp) infecting Indigenous Leafy Vegetables (ILVs) in Kisii and Transmara sub-counties in Kenya.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Distribution of Study: Nematology Laboratory, Kenyatta University and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Laboratories, Nairobi, between March 2009 to September 2011.

Methodology: Samples were obtained from two sites; Kisii and Trans-mara sub-counties. From each selected site; 10 farms which grew ILVs were randomly sampled. From each farm 10 plants of each ILV infected by Root knot nematodes were randomly selected. They were uprooted together with the surrounding soil and transported to the laboratory. In the laboratory female second-stage juveniles (J2) were extracted and used for genomic DNA isolation and sequencing. PCR amplifications of the extracted DNA was carried out for each isolate using primers: SSU18A (5’-AAAGATTAAAGCCATGCATG-3’) and SSU26R (5’-CATTCTTGGCAAATGCTTTCG-3’). Double stranded DNA were sequenced by cycle sequencing with Big Dye 3.0 Terminator cycle sequencing kit and analysed with an ABI 310 Gene Analyser. Sequences were determined on one strand using the M13 forward primer. Sequence information was assembled using sequencer 4.1. Alignments were performed using ClustalW.

Results: All the three major species identified, namely Meloidogyne arenaria, M. javanica and M. incognita amplified using SSUrRNA produced a single PCR product of 700 bp and 11 sequences obtained that were compared with nucleotide sequences in the Gene bank using the BLAST Software to determine similarities. Several sequences of Meloidogyne nematodes (5 S ribosomal RNA) were identified with regions that matched with the obtained sequences. The nearly complete 5S rDNA sequences obtained from the 11 sequences varied from 675 to 692 base pairs.

Conclusion: The selected primers can be used for determining variation in the rDNA region in RKN infecting ILVs in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcomes in Single-port Versus Multiport Robotic Cholecystectomy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Shareef Syed, Jean Knapps, Mohammed Ahmed, Aziz Merchant

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23567

Background: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) had initially gained significant traction due to safety and feasibility that were comparable, in addition to the cosmetic advantages over traditional laparoscopy. However significant limitations of SILS including narrow working space and poor triangulation, lead to longer operating times [1]. Due to these limitations most of the surgical community have reverted back to traditional four-port laparoscopy for cholecystectomy. After the introduction of the robot, the multiport (MP) platform was the initial method used for cholecystectomy. The robotic single-site (SP) surgery platform is proposed to overcome some of the limitations of SILS while maintaining its benefits. 

Objectives: We present a systematic review comparing clinical outcomes of multiport versus single-port (SP) robotic cholecystectomy for the treatment of benign gallbladder disease.

Materials/Patients and Methods: Key words “Robotic”, “Robotic assisted”, “daVinci robot”, “daVinci robot assisted”, and MeSH terms “cholecystectomy”, “gallbladder”, “biliary”, “cholelithiasis” were searched on Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases, to acquire citations between 1980 and 2012. Two treatment arms were identified: single port (SP) and multiport (MP). Variables considered included age, gender, BMI, operating time, conversion to open, complications and mortality. Primary outcomes include; thirty day mortality, thirty day morbidity, and conversions to traditional laparoscopy or laparotomy. The secondary outcome measure was operative time.  Demographics analyzed included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI).

Results: The initial search revealed two hundred and fifty five citations. Exclusion based on title criteria revealed seventy five articles. Twenty-two articles fulfilled further inclusion criteria. The SP arm included two hundred cases (six articles) and MP included three hundred and eighty three cases (sixteen articles). Pooled mean (PM) ages were 50.16 years and 47.38 years for SP and MP. BMI was 28.16 Kg/M2 (SP) vs. 28.24 Kg/M2 (MP). Operating times were longer in the SP group, (92.94 minutes vs. 91.13 minutes). Complication rate of 5/200 in SP group vs. 13/383 in MP group were found, and overall mortality was zero for both.

Conclusions: Single incision robotic cholecystectomy appears to be comparable to multiport robotics in terms of safety and feasibility, however larger studies, randomized, need to be conducted for more statistically significant data.

Implication for Health Policy Makers/Practice/Research/Medical Education: An understanding of the outcomes between standard multiport and single-port robotic cholecystectomy will guide further research and quality improvement with respect to cost-effectiveness of certain robotic procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Bean Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Races on Isolates Collected from Nyamira County and Narok South Sub County, Kenya

E. K. Nyang’au, J. B. Nyangeri, J. Makatiani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23305

Common bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) is an etiological agent of bean rust disease of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that causes damage and consequent yield losses. The high and wide virulence variability of the rust pathogen poses a major challenge to bean breeding programmes in Kenya with an objective of developing resistant varieties to the disease. This study was undertaken to identify Uromyces appendiculatus races and evaluate the virulence variability of Uromyces appendiculatus races occurring in common beans. The isolates were collected from Nyamira county and Narok South sub county, Kenya using transect line sampling method. Seven single pustule isolates obtained from the two counties were used to inoculate standard differential cultivars in a rust free green house to determine the physiological races of U. appendicultus. The application of a set of 12 standard differential cultivars and the international classification and binary nomenclature system grouped the seven isolates into four different U. appendiculatus races; 29-1, 29-3, 31-3 and 31-11. The race 31-11 was only prevalent in Nyamira county. The races affected the differential cultivars attributed to the Andean gene pool. The Meso american differential cultivars were resistant to most races of the rust pathogen. The races were found to vary in virulence based on their reaction with the standard differential cultivars. The findings from this study informs on the need for regular screening of bean genotypes for tolerance to bean rust as a strategy of effectively developing common bean  varieties with broad resistance to manage bean rust in Nyamira and Narok south, Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gold Nanoparticle Uptake and Distribution in the Digestive Tract of Hermetia illucens Stratiomyidae: Diptera (L.1758) Based on Transmission Electron Microscopy

K. Doelle, F. R. Oliveira, R. P. Smith

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23907

This study investigated the interaction of gold nano partilcles with the digestive tract of the black soldier larva, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For this study an overall of 30 Hermetia illucens was bread at 28°C to 30°C at a moisture content of 70% to 80% with a diet based on cow manure. The study showed that gold nanoparticles were absorbed into different cells and were not treated as foreign particles. A gold nanoparticle accumulation was found in some goblet like cells. Gold nanoparticles were able to pass the peritrophic membrane and enter the gut epithelial cells.