Open Access Short Research Article

Modified Vaginal Sampling Technique Reduces Interference on Estrous Cycle’s Phases of Rats

Mahfoudh A. M. Abdulghani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23817

Aims: Two sampling techniques are used in preparing rodent vaginal smear. These techniques include vaginal lavage with sterile fluid using an eye dropper or a pipette and swab with moistened cotton bud with sterile fluid. The current study aims to investigate the influence of the different techniques of vaginal sampling on estrous cycle (EC) regularity.

Study Design: Four groups of adult female rats, each consisting of 10 animals, were selected for the study.

Methodology: Vaginal samples were obtained using different techniques including cotton bud, eye dropper, pipette, and modified pipette for four animal groups during six ECs.

Results: The modified pipette technique showed less influence on EC regularity in rats compared with the other techniques. The modified pipette animal group showed a significantly (< 0.05) higher percentage of animals with regular ECs (98±4.1) compared with the cotton bud animal group (75.0±13.8).

Conclusion: The modified pipette technique has less interference on the EC phases of rats than the other techniques, and it does not require assistance compared with the pipette technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effects of the Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Fungi Associated with Infected Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria

W. C. John, N. C. J. Anyanwu, T. Ayisa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23698

Aim: To evaluate the effects of different concentrations of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina on fungi associated with infected tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) obtain from Jos North Local Government Area.

Place and Duration of Study: Jos Local Government Area markets; Microbiology Laboratory, Federal College of Forestry between May and August, 2015.

Materials and Methods: A total of thirty (30) infected tomatoes were collected. Three species of fungi were isolated, identified and observed in relation to their percentage of distribution. Isolates obtained were subjected to Vernonia amygdalina ethanolic leaf extract to determine antifungal sensitivity at varying concentrations. 70% Ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina at 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were used for sensitivity test with positive control using fluconazole (50mg/ml) and negative control using distilled water. The mean effects of the treatments on the isolates were determined at 24hours and 48hours, respectively.

Results: The percentage of distribution showed Geotrichum candidum (45.16%), Rhizopus stolonifer (22.58%) and Fusarium oxysporum (32.26%). After 24 hours, no inhibition was recorded on Fusarium oxysporum at all levels of concentration of the test plant, except the positive control which showed the highest inhibitory effect. However after 48 hours, there was inhibitory effect across all the isolates at all concentration levels of the test plant with significant differences between each level. 100 mg/ml of the extract had high inhibitory effect of 13.00 mm in comparison with other concentration levels. The lowest inhibitory effect of 1.00 mm was observed at 12.5 mg/ml concentration. The positive control showed no inhibitory effect on Rhizopus stolonifer within the duration of the observation. The inhibitory effects of the extract results shows significant difference among the three fungi tested (P<001).

Conclusion: This study revealed that natural products from higher plants are relatively broad spectrum, bio-efficacious, economical, and biodegradable and can be ideal for use as agro-chemicals. Among plants that are known to possess those qualities is Vernonia amygdalina.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Bioaccumulative Impact of Four Heavy Metals on the Endocrine System of Tilapia rendalli Fish Species in the Kafue River

Brightone Kaile, James Nyirenda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23132

Some heavy metals (HMs) are of biological importance in animal life while others are important trace elements for plant growth and in higher animals. Despite various uses, their biotoxic effects arise once accumulation levels in animal bodies go beyond maximum permissible limits. Heavy Metal contamination is an environmental problem worldwide. This study aimed at assessing the bioaccumulative impact of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb on the endocrine system of Tilapia rendalli fish in Kafue River, Zambia. Water samples collected in replicate, were stored at 8°C in polypropylene bottles. Samples were filtered at room temperature for analysis. Blood, gills, liver and muscles were extracted per fish sample collected from upper, middle and lower site of the river; KUP, ITT and SH respectively. Gills, livers and muscles were cleaned, oven dried at 110°C, weighed and digested using 55% nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid (ANALAR) at about 200 – 250°C on a hot plate to a transparent solution after disappearance of initial brown fumes. Solutions were cooled and diluted using distilled water. The samples were assayed for the metals using FAAS. Blood samples were thawed at room temperature, centrifuged to collect supernatant serum. Serum was assayed for Estradiol (E2) and Testosterone (T) using ELISA method. Hormone levels varied significantly among fish samples. This difference was related to variations of HM levels in fish tissues from respective sites. Highest mean levels of T (13.58±2.8 ng/mL) and E2 (774.33±66.98 pg/mL) were measured in SH while lowest levels of T (5.78±0.69 ng/mL) and E2 (63.75±45.39 pg/mL) were measured in ITT. The study showed that low levels of Cd, Cu, and Ni in SH correlated significantly to high hormone levels, while high levels of Cu in livers and muscles; 496.73±184.96 mg/kg and 43.68±18.32 mg/kg respectively recorded in ITT, correlated negatively to low hormone levels in fish. A positive correlation between hormone levels and Pb concentrations in tissues was observed. Therefore, HM bioaccumulation may affect expression levels of sex hormones in fish as shown in this study. Since the levels of HM were high in internal organs than in muscle (flesh), fish of Kafue River may be safe for consumption, but may pose a health risk if consumed together with internal organs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Nutritional Qualities of Fermented Ugba (Pentaclethra macrophylla, Bentham) Sold in Mbaise, Imo State, Nigeria

N. C. J. Anyanwu, O. L. Okonkwo, C. N. Iheanacho, B. Ajide

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23610

Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the microbial load and nutritional qualities of fermented Ugba

Study Design: This research study was done using random sampling technique.

Place and Duration of Study: Mbaise Markets, Mbaise, Imo State; Department of Microbiology, Madonna University, Elele Campus, Rivers State, between October 2014 and March 2015.

Materials and Methods: A total of 20 samples of ugba were purchased from different locations in Mbaise markets - Orie-Ikpa, Nkwo-Ogwu, Orie-Amaigwe and Afor-Ajaala. Pour plate technique was used for enumeration while streak plate method was used for isolation. Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar, Eosin methylene blue agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar were used to determine total aerobic plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli and fungal count respectively.

Results: For Total Aerobic Plate Count (TAPC), Afor-Ajaala had the highest count (8.05±0.11 log10 cfu/g) while Orie-Ikpa had the lowest count (7.98±0.14 log10 cfu/g). For Colony Count (CC), Orie-Ikpa had the highest count (5.88±0.17 log10 cfu/g) while Orie-Amaigwe had the lowest count (5.75±0.15 log10 cfu/g). For E. coli Count (EC) counts, Nkwo-Ogwu market had the highest (4.34±0.40 log10 cfu/g) while Orie-Amaigwe had the least (4.12±0.30 log10 cfu/g). For Fungi Count (FC), Nkwo-Ogwu had the highest count (5.27±0.48 log10 cfu/g) while Orie-Ikpa had the least count (5.03±0.48 log10 cfu/g). Bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus sp (80%), Bacillus sp (95%), Lactobacillus sp (90%), Klebsiella sp (35%) and Escherichia coli (35%). Fungi isolates were Aspergillus spp (45%), Penicillium spp (35%) and Saccharomyces spp (100%). The proximate analysis (%/100 g) yielded crude protein content (29.3), ash content (8.83), crude fibre (5.75), moisture content (33.7), lipid (18.32), Carbohydrate (3.55) and dry mass (66.23).

Conclusion: This study revealed that consumers of Ugba processed or sold in poorly sanitized condition are exposed to food poisoning and gastroenteritis, hence, the need to control microbial growth on Ugba sold in Imo State. However, Ugba prepared and sold in a hygienic environment serves as an adequate proteinaceous food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seminal Plasma Levels of Neutral Alpha Glucosidase Activity and Its Interactions with Spermiogram in Nigerian Males

Alfred Azenabor, Jecinta Ezeafulukwe, Ayodele Oloruntoba Ekun, Babajide Solomon Bamiro

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22765

Introduction: Seminal neutral alpha glucosidase activity is a useful parameter in determination of the cause of azoospermia, This has often been reported to have seasonal variation and has not been extensively studied in sub Saharan Africa.

Materials and Methods: The was a cross sectional study conducted on 122 male subjects attending a fertility clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. Semen samples were collected from subjects by masturbation into a sterile universal bottle. The samples were analysed after one hour to allow for complete liquefaction and the results categorized according to the WHO guidelines.

Results: The mean age, standard deviation (SD) and age group of the study subjects were 44 (5.3) years and 30 - 56 years respectively. The mean ± 2SD of neutral alpha glucosidase activity in subjects with normozoospermia (20.42±14.55 mIU/ml) is comparable with other categories (f = 1.430, p = 0.236). The number and proportions of the categorized spermiogram in this report is oligoasthenozoospermia 18 (15%), azoospermia 18 (15%), oligozoospermia 18 (15%) and normozoospermia 64 (53.3%). Normozoospermic subjects had a significantly increased sperm concentration (61.19± 38.91), % active motility (56.56±16.92%), (f = 43.959, p = 0.000) and % non progressive motility (34.94±25.22%), (f = 8.203, p = 0.000) compared with other categories; while asthenozoospermic subjects had a significantly increased % abnormal sperm cells (60.00±0.00) compared with other categories (f = 21.448, p = 0.000). Neutral alpha glucosidase activity correlated positively with sperm concentration (r = 0.806, p = 0.005) in normozoospermic subjects.

Conclusion: We conclude from our results that the determination of neutral alpha glucosidase activity in seminal plasma may not give additional information of the fertility status, but shows premise in conjunction with other seminal biochemical parameters, clinical manisfestations and spermiogram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ontogeny of the Lim Code in the Mouse Gonads

Abhijit Dixit, Deepak Modi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24086

Lim genes are developmentally regulated transcription factors involved in tissue specification and cell differentiation. Several Lim genes are present in the mammalian genome and each tissue expresses a unique pattern of Lim genes giving rise to the Lim code and it is believed that the Lim code is the determinant of the cell fate decisions taken by the tissue. In the developing mouse, Lhx9 and Lmo4 have been identified to play a key role in gonad specification and testis development; however the presence of other Lim genes and its co-regulators has not been reported. Recent evidences also suggest that the Lim genes are also expressed in other adult tissues. However, the presence of Lim genes in adult gonads has not been reported. In the present study we report the expression profiles of Lhx9, Lmo 1-4 and Clim 1 and 2 in the developing, neonatal and adult mouse gonads. Our results show that along with Lhx9, all the Lmos and Clims are expressed by the developing and adult gonads. With the exception of Lmo4, the expression of all these factors is sexually dimorphic with higher expression in the female gonads as compared to male gonads. Our results indicate that the Lim gene activity may be vital for ovarian development and functioning. It will be interesting to study the gonadal phenotypes of the Lim mutants to define their specific roles in the gonads.

Open Access Review Article

Toxicological Impact of Herbicides on Cyanobacteria

D. P. Singh, J. I. S. Khattar, Gurdeep Kaur, Yadvinder Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-39
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22614

The use of herbicides in modern agriculture to eradicate weeds has led to serious environmental contamination resulting in a loss of growth and development of many beneficial micro-organisms. Low cost, easy availability, lax in regulatory mechanism have contributed to the continuous use of the herbicides in tropical and subtropical regions. The removal of these herbicides from soil and aquatic systems is a difficult task and as a result herbicides persist in these ecosystems for a long period of time. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Their life processes require only water, carbon dioxide, inorganic substances and light and these organisms contribute greatly to terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems through their ability to increase soil fertility by adding nitrogen, enhancing water holding capacity, releasing vitamins and plant stimulating hormones, adding extra cellular polysaccharides and by solubilizing phosphates. The present paper review responses of cyanobacteria to herbicides and impact of herbicides on photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation by cyanobacteria. The tolerance mechanisms and herbicide biodegradation potential of cyanobacteria are also reviewed.