Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Pathogenic Effect of Fungi on Fresh Healthy Tomatoes in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria

W. C. John, N. C. J. Anyanwu, O. A. Ogunmodi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23689

Aim: To determine the rot (pathogenic) effect of fungi isolated from diseased tomatoes on fresh healthy tomatoes obtained from Jos North LGA markets.

Place and Duration of Study: Jos North Local Government Area market, Plateau State; Microbiology laboratory, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State between May 2015 and August 2015.

Materials and Methods: A total of thirty (30) fresh healthy and thirty (30) infected tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) were obtained randomly from different market in Jos North LGA between May and August 2015. Three types of fungi were isolated from the infected tomatoes and morphologically identified. Fresh and healthy tomatoes were use for pathogenicity testing.

Results: Percentage distributions of the isolated fungi showed Geotrichum candidum (45.16%), Rhizopus stolonifer (22.58%) and Fusarium oxysporum (32.26%). All the isolates caused spoilage of fresh and healthy tomatoes with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage severity of rot (70.88%), followed by Geotrichum candidum (38.73%) and Fusarium oxysporum (32.08%) after 96hours of incubation. The percentage severity results shows significant difference among the three fungi tested (P<001).

Conclusion: This study revealed that tomatoes rot are caused by different types of fungi and their activities, therefore proper handling procedure especially during post harvest should be ensured to avoid spoilage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Impact of Wastewater Generated From Catfish Ponds on the Quality of Soil in Lagos, Nigeria

O. E. Omofunmi, J. K. Adewumi, A. F. Adisa, S. O. Alegbeleye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/21761

The study was performed to examine catfish (Clarias geriepinus) effluents on the quality of soil in Lagos State, Nigeria. Five fish farms with highest stock density were selected for evaluation. The soil sampling was collected at 10 metres apart before the effluent discharged site; at the effluent discharged site; 10 metres after the effluent discharged site and Non-effluent discharged siite (control) denoted as SA, SB, SC and SD  respectively. Analysis of the required soil physical and chemical properties were performed at 5cm depth from 0 – 20 cm. Results showed that the effluents discharged site and Non-effluents discharged site indicated that they contained Temperature (26.5±0.1, 27.5±0.1°C), pH (6.7±0.1, 6.2±0.1), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) (36.4±2.1, 21.4±1.2%), Organic carbon (10.8±0.1, 7.4±0.1 mg/kg), TN (26.4±2.2, 22.4±2.1 mg/kg), TP (7.3±0.1, 6.1±0.1 mg/kg), Potassium (3.4±0.1, 3.1±0.1 mg/kg), Calcium (9.5±0.1, 5.9±0.1 mg/kg), Sodium (1.6±0.1, 0.9±0.1 mg/kg), magnesium (8.8±0.1, 7.2±0.1 mg/kg), Zinc (3.3±0.1, 3.0±0.1 mg/kg), Iron (58.7±4.2, 55.8±3.2 mg/kg) and Manganese (23.6±2.3, 21.1±2.2 mg/kg) respectively and were significant different (p≥0.05). Both soil nutrients at the immediate environment of effluents discharged site were within critical range of soil fertility for arable crop production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Stenotrophomonas and Exiguobacterium Using Renewable Carbon Source

Bushra Iqbal, Naima Khan, Nazia Jamil

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23066

Aims: The basic purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of these bacterial strains to use arbon rich waste materials as nutrients and use them to produce cost effective polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB).

Study Design: Basic phenotypic and genotypic study of screening bacteria for low-cost PHB production.

Place and Duration of Study: Identified bacterial strains were taken from lab collection of Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. This study was conducted between 2011-2012.

Methodology: Carbon rich waste materials as nutrients and use them to produce cost effective amount of PHB. Two indigenous bacterial strains Stenotrophomonas and Exiguobacterium were used in this study. The potato starch and waste water with minimum treatment were used as carbon sources and compared with glucose. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of the polyhydroxybutyrate.

Results: The percentage PHB was 10.2%, 8.6%, 48.02% when glucose, potato starch and waste water was used as sole carbon source strain Exiguobacterium respectively. While for Stenotrophomonas the higher rate accumulation rate for PHB was 11.7%, 10.4% and 36.4% using glucose, potato starch and waste water as carbon source respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of C=O in the PHB material extracted from the biomass. The genetic basis for the PHB production was also confirmed by sequencing phaC gene for the selected strains.

Conclusion: This study directs that environmental bacterial strains use many renewable carbon sources like waste materials to accumulate the PHB could be very cost effective. Stenotrophomonas and Exiguabacterium producing PHB using organic waste material nonetheless still there is a prerequisite to do more research on their production optimization and genetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Planting Method on Growth, Yield and Quality of Three Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties Grown in Zimbabwe

Robert Mangani, Upenyu Mazarura, Abduel Mtaita Tuarira, Admire Shayanowako

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/9980

The planting methods currently used by Irish potato farmers were optimized for old varieties more than three decades ago. No such work has since been done regardless of the newer varieties that have been introduced since then. Hence, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two planting methods (planting in the furrow; ridging up to a height of 20 cm immediately after planting (IAP)) on three varieties of Irish potato (BP1, Mnandi and KY20) that are grown in Zimbabwe. The trial was done at Africa University Farm in Mutare, Zimbabwe. The experiment was a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement laid out in 4 replications using a randomized complete block design. The first factor was the two planting methods and the second factor was the three varieties. The unit plot size was 3.6 x 3.6 m2 and the net harvestable plot was 2 m x 2 m discarding the border rows. The inter and intra-row spacings were 90 and 30 cm, respectively. The result showed that ridging delayed crop emergence as compared to furrow planting (43.4% vs. 35.7% 8 days after planting and 92.7% vs. 78.4% 12 days after planting (DAP) but did not significantly reduce crop yield, which, in fact, it increased. Ridge planting reduced the incidence of green tubers by close to 50%. Stem density per plant was influenced by variation in variety. Marketable tuber yield was improved by ridge planting. Specific gravity decreased with ridge planting but quality of potato did not deteriorate. This study showed that ridging IAP was beneficial for the varieties used but more work is needed to establish the ideal tuber seed piece size as the ability of tubers to emerge might be dependent on the size of the tuber seed piece planted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Some Life Table Parameters of Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Maize under Field Condition in Western Ethiopia

Tifsehit Solomon, Emana Getu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23960

Field Life Tables were constructed for Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Boneya and Haru during 2012 and 2013. The analysis of the life tables were done to determine the role of each factor such that density dependent factors (Predators and parasitoids) and density independent factors (wind) in the developmental stages of the insect. Meanwhile, key mortality factor was determined using Podoler and Rogers [1] regression method. The life table analyses showed that B. fusca has two generations per season at both locations. The highest population reduction of B. fusca was recorded at small larval stage which was caused by disappearance that could be due to predation and/or mobility to other plants or locations with the aid of wind in Boneya and Haru. Population reduction of small larvae and medium larvae caused by disappearance and/or migration were the key factor in changing the population of B. fusca in Boneya and Haru, respectively. The detection of density dependence result showed inverse density dependence between kparasitism of pupal stage and B. fusca population and no density dependence was detected for the other population reduction factors at Boneya. So the parasitoid couldn’t increase with the increasing population of B. fusca. At Haru the result was not significant for all population reduction factors, so there was no density dependence detected for all population reduction factors implying that population reduction factors acted irrespective of the population of B. fusca.

Open Access Original Research Article

External Morphology of Hermetia illucens Stratiomyidae: Diptera (L.1758) Based on Electron Microscopy

F. R. Oliveira, K. Doelle, R. P. Smith

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22973

This work aimed to study the external morphology of black soldier fly (BSF) larvae Hermetia illucens (L. 1758) Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae: Diptera) bred under ideal conditions with a diet based on cow manure. Observations and illustrations were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the State University of New York (SUNY), College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF), Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering (PBE) and N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies between June 2015 and October 2015.

The study monitored an overall of 30 larvae and the transition of their instars at an temperature of 28-30°C and an moisture content of 70-80%.

A detailed description of the anatomy of the larval and adult stage is here shown for the first time. The morphological differences between male and female flies illustrate a distinct sexual dimorphism of notable taxonomic interest.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Catfish Farming on Water Quality of Stream in Lagos State, Nigeria

O. E. Omofunmi, J. K. Adewumi, A. F. Adisa, S. O. Alegbeleye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22458

This paper advocates habitat conservation and ecological studies with special reference to the physico-chemical characteristics of Majidun stream. The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) effluents on water quality of stream where five catfish farms are localized. The constituents monitored include water temperature, specific conductance, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity, total hardness and chloride. Monthly samples were taken from upstream (S1) and the catfish farm effluents discharged site (S2) and downstream (S3, S4) for six months. Physical and chemical properties of water samples were determined in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The mean values water quality parameters for the stream at effluents discharged site and Non-effluents discharged site indicated that they contained: Water temperature (24.6±0.2, 24.2±0.1), Specific conductance (408.6±44.3, 358.4±22.4 mho/cm), Turbidity (27.5±10.3, 21.3±4.2 NTU), TSS (27.1±12.6, 19.3±5.5 mg/l), Total Alkalinity (24.6±8.6, 18.6±5.8 mg/l), Total hardness (29.8±14.2, 22.1± 0.02 mg/l) and Chloride (20.5±4.5, 14.3±2.8 mg/l) respectively and were significantly different (p≤ 0.05). If the present conditions continue for a long period, Majidun stream may soon become ecologically unbalance to the aquatic ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Host Resistance on Foliar Late Blight Severity, Disease Development and Progress on Selected Irish Potato Varieties in Kenya

Micah Ongoro Mariita, Johnson Nyangeri, Jacqueline Kubochi Makatiani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23616

Background: Late Blight Disease, caused by the fungal pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a major constraint of Irish potato production in Kenya. The disease can destroy a crop, causing up to 100% yield loss. Small scale holder farmers in Kisii County continuously grow Irish potato that is susceptible to P. infestans, which require a number of fungicide sprays. This study was formulated out of the realization that Irish potato plays a major role in food security and contributes to poverty alleviation. Also, the commonly used protectant fungicides for late blight disease are expensive, hazardous and are not effective against P. infestans.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of host resistance to foliar late blight severity, disease development and progress on selected potato varieties under field and glasshouse conditions in Kisii County, Kenya.

Study Design: Nine potato varieties (Tigoni, Meru red, Kenya mpya, Sherekea, Shangi, Purple gold, Asante, Mang’ere and Nyayo) were grown in the field and glasshouse following a randomized complete block design. 

Place and Duration of the Study: This research was carried out in Kisii County, Kenya between January 2015 and September 2015.

Methodology: Late blight infected Irish potato leaves were collected from the field. Field symptoms of late blight were used to identify the diseased leaves. In the laboratory isolation and identification was done using culture and microscopic techniques. Phytophthora infestans inoculum was prepared using pure culture, standardized to 1x107 sporangia/ml concentration using haemocytometer. Pathogenicity test was done to confirm pathogenicity of the pathogen. Ten millimetres of the inoculum was sprayed on each healthy potato plant. Disease development and progress was monitored, and the area under disease progress curve was used to score the severity of late blight progress on various potato varieties. The relative area under disease progress curve was also used to compare data from different experimental plots. Data collected was analysed by analysis of variance using GENSTAT directive Version 12.0. Treatment means were separated using significant difference test at P<.001.

Results: Irish potato varieties from various experimental plots showed varied reaction to 1x107 sporangia/ml concentration P. infestans inoculum in both the field and glasshouse. Late blight severity differed significantly among various Irish potato varieties. The results showed that Sherekea had better tolerance of 7.0 (0.003) in the glasshouse and 468.0 (0.223) in the field to late blight. Mang’ere showed high susceptibility of 630.0 (0.3) in the glasshouse and 2093.0 (0.997) in the field to late blight. The major finding was that Sherekea can yield despite being infected by late blight disease.

Conclusion: Late blight disease remains a serious threat to Irish potato production causing significant yield and economic losses to farmers. It is suggested that growing Sherekea variety could significantly reduce late blight yield losses.