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Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on Research Progress on in vitro Regeneration and Transformation of Tomato

Sunil Kumar Senapati

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/22300

After potato tomato is the second major vegetable crop consumed all over the globe as raw and processed food. Due to its high demand its genetic improvement in respect to high yielding, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance etc. has been done by several peoples through transformation. Transformation is an emerging tool in crop improvement programme, which expands the source of genes for plant improvement to all species far beyond the gene pool accessible via sexual hybridization. The key component of transformation system is a most functional genomics approaches useful for developing various gene identification strategies and also offers strategies for over expressing or suppressing endogenous genes. The current review provides an overview of the research progress on regeneration and transformation of tomato in the last 15 years.

Open Access Minireview Article

Evolutionary Trends in Hydrocharitaceae Seagrasses

Alice Benzecry, Sheila Brack-Hanes

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24354

This paper provides evidences of the evolutionary pathway followed by one of the main groups of marine angiosperms, the Hydrocharitaceae. Current molecular data has confirmed the aquatic origin of these plants. The Hydrocharitaceae group has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the fossil record in Europe and North America. Morphological and phylogenetic data has shown dramatic differences between the Hydrocharitaceae and the other marine angiosperms. Furthermore, it supports the hypothesis that aquatic monocot ancestors were able to adapt to a continuously changing environment caused by widespread continental flooding in the Cretaceous Period when seagrasses first occur, to a gradual regression of inland seas during the Eocene leading to subsequent adaptation to a completely submerged marine environment within the subfamily Hydriloideae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Peste des petits ruminants Vaccination on Clinico-haematological Parameters of West African Dwarf Sheep Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma congolense

Ijeoma Chekwube Chukwudi, Boniface Maduka Anene, Cornelius C. Chukwu, Ikenna Onyema Ezeh, Kenneth Ikejiofor Ogbu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23671

Aim: The research was conducted to determine the clinico-haematological parameters and impacts of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination and trypanocidal treatment in Trypanosoma congolense infected West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep.

Methodology: Twenty (20) WAD sheep were grouped into five (5) (A-E), each containing four (4) sheep. Group A (Gp A) was the unvaccinated and uninfected control. Groups B, C, D and E were first vaccinated with PPR vaccine, after which D and E were infected with T. congolense one (1) week post-vaccination, and then C and D were treated three (3) weeks post-infection.

Results: A prepatant period of 12-14 days was recorded. The infection was characterized by fluctuating parasitaemia and pyrexia, decreased appetite, slight pale mucous membrane, starry hair coat and enlargement of prescapular and perfermoral lymph nodes. There was no significant change (P>0.05) in the mean body weight and pulse rate of the infected sheep. Decreased packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc) and total erythrocyte count (TEC) were observed in the infected sheep. Leucocytosis associated with lymphocytosis which was similar in the infected and uninfected sheep were observed in all the vaccinated sheep starting from two weeks post vaccination. The vaccination had no effect on clinical (temperature, pulse rate, weight gain) and red blood cell (mean PCV, Hb conc and TEC) parameters. Following treatment with diminazene aceturate, the infected and treated sheep became aparasitaemic within 24 hours post treatment and there was no relapse infection. The declines in the clinical and haematological parameters of the infected sheep were reversed by treatment.

Conclusion: Vaccination caused a marked leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis in both infected and uninfected animals and also had no impact on the clinical parameters assessed which is an indication that PPR vaccination had no untoward effect on the animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Incidences of Late Blight Disease on Irish Potato Varieties in Kisii County, Kenya

Micah Ongoro Mariita, Johnson Nyangeri, Jacqueline Kubochi Makatiani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23617

Background: Late Blight Disease, caused by the fungal pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a major constraint of Irish potato production in Kenya. The disease can destroy a crop, causing up to 100% yield loss. Small scale holder farmers in Kisii County continuously grow Irish potato that is susceptible to P. infestans which require a number of fungicides sprays. The study was formulated out of the realization that Irish potato plays a major role in food security and contributes to poverty alleviation. Also, the commonly used protectant fungicides for the crop are expensive, hazardous and are not effective against Phytophthora infestans.

Aim: To assess the incidences of late blight disease on Irish potato varieties in Kisii County, Kenya.

Study Design: The Irish potato farms were selected randomly following a line transect. Twenty nine stops at every ten kilometres were made, three potato farms around every stop were inspected for the presence of late blight infected Irish potato varieties. A total of eighty seven farms were inspected for the presence of late blight. Five late blight infected leaves from each farm were collected for examination in the laboratory.

Methodology: A random sampling method was used to collect late blight infected Irish potato plants from various farms along the transect routes. P. infestans were isolated, cultured on a potato dextrose agar and identified by microscopic techniques at National Agricultural Research Laboratories and Kenya Agricultural research and Livestock Organisation Kisii. An inoculum prepared was standardized to 1x107 sporangia/ml concentration using haemocytometer. Pathogenicity test was done on health Irish potato plants to confirm the pathogenicity nature of the Phytophthora infestans. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance using GENSTAT directive version 12.0 and chi-square.

Place and Duration of the Study: Sampling was carried out in the month of April, May and June 2015 during the long rain season in Kisii County, Kenya.

Results: Late blight disease was found to be rampant in all the 87 farms inspected in the County. Late blight effect differed significantly at P<.001 among the Irish potato varieties assessed. There was no significant different among the farms inspected and this indicated that all farms visited were infected with late blight the same way. Along the transect routes six Irish potato varieties were identified notably Mang’ere (55.6%), Nyayo (17.2%), Tigoni (3.4%), Asante (3.4%), Shangi (10.3%) and Purple gold (10.3%).

Conclusion: Late blight disease remains a serious threat to Irish potato production causing significant yield and economic losses to farmers. The diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the region calls for the most sustainable approach for reducing late blight problem significantly and this would enable the farmers to get good yields from their Irish potato crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Death Feigning Behaviour of Several Frog Species from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

S. Shahriza

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24454

Two individuals of ranid species, Hylarana picturata and Hylarana laterimaculata, were collected from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest. A single individual of dicroglossid species, Occidozyga laevis and two individuals of Polypedates leucomystax, were captured from Ulu Paip and Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest respectively. When approached and handled for photography, the first two species leaped in very erratic patterns for approximately 10-15 minutes, before becoming exhausted and exhibiting death feigning posture. However, the third species only made a single leap before displayed a death feigning behaviour. The latter species also showed thanatosis behaviour, but in a very different body posture. The first specimen of P. leucomystax flexed its head ventrally, while the second specimen stretched its hindlimbs laterally. 

Open Access Review Article

Craniofacial Muscles-differentiation and Morphogenesis

A. A. Mundhada, U. V. Kulkarni, V. D. Swami, S. V. Deshmukh, A. S. Patil

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24329

Unraveling the complex nature of tissue interactions is essential to generate structural and functional diversity present among craniofacial muscles. There are various distinct skeletal muscles in craniofacial region, the development of which are closely co-ordinated with other craniofacial tissues. The head musculature is known to originate from the cranial paraxial mesoderm (CPM) located anterior to the somites, and lacks any overt signs of segmentation. A consortium of transducting signals is required for the differentiation of skeletal muscle establishing spatially and temporally diverse myogenic populations. The induction, differentiation, and morpho-differentiation of these muscles is a relatively untouched area for experimentation with a cascades of signaling molecules, growth factors and genes. Various regulatory factors like Myf5, MyoD, Pax3, Pax7, Pitx2, Tbx1, Musculin and Tcf21 play a vital role in craniofacial muscle embryogenesis and morphogenesis. The relationship between craniofacial muscles and craniofacial morphology would seem to confirm the functional matrix theory of form and function. This review has been to highlight the classification, embryonic origin, differentiation and myogenesis, as well as the role of craniofacial muscles in growth of the craniofacial skeleton.

Open Access Review Article

Sustainability: The Over-Arching Concept in Environmental Science and Development

S. N. Okiwelu, M. A. E. Noutcha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23760

The introduction focuses on the history of the three key terms in this review: environmental science, development and sustainability. The other two sections are devoted to sustainability in environmental science and sustainability in development. The problem-solving interdisciplinary nature and ethical considerations in environmental science are highlighted. The right to development and the unattended negatives of development are discussed. The three components of sustainability (economic, social, environmental) and their relationships are explained. The pervasive nature of sustainability in environmental science: renewable (e.g.: forests, fisheries, wildlife) and non-renewable (e.g.: minerals) natural resources, water management, agriculture, etc. are emphasized. The historical odyssey of the term, sustainable development, from its first mention nearly 50 years ago to Brundtland’s Our Common Future that generated almost worldwide political consensus and the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations General Assembly at its seventieth session is outlined. The conclusion stresses that in addition to the adoption of the sustainability concept in management of resources and development, international efforts on the reduction of human population growth rates, emission of greenhouse gases and pollution should be intensified for a sustainable future.