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Open Access Method Article

Basic Theoretical Arguments Advocating Jackknife-2 as Usually being the Most Appropriate Nonparametric Estimator of Total Species Richness

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25104

A lot of nonparametric estimators of the number of unrecorded species after partial sampling of an assemblage of species, have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, these different types of estimators provides substantially divergent predictions. While empirical comparisons have failed to consistently select in favour of one among all these estimators, a new approach, based on more theoretical ground, has proven that among three of the most commonly used nonparametric estimators, Chao, Jackknife-1 and Jackknife-2, the latter was the best choice in most cases while Chao or Jackknife-1 should preferably be restricted to samplings approaching completeness. Here, I propose an alternative approach, aiming also at discriminating between the same three estimators on the basis of another theoretical argument: The necessary compliance with the required “rule of additivity”, according to which, if an assemblage of species is made of several, distinct groups of species, the estimation of species richness for the whole assemblage should be exactly the sum of the estimations of richness for each group of species. Referring to this rule of additivity, the Jackknife series of estimators (and in particular Jackknife-2 when samples remain far from completeness), proves, once again, being satisfactory in full generality. This strengthens the estimators of the Jackknife series as being particularly appropriate to evaluate, in most cases, the number of unrecorded species of a partially sampled assemblage and the corresponding total species richness of the assemblage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Different Species of Mammalians Involved in Zoonoses as Reservoirs or Hosts by Sequencing of the Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome B Gene

Pedro Carnieli Jr, Juliana Galera Castilho, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner Batista

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25230

Introduction: The identification of species that act as reservoirs or hosts of zoonotic agents is essential for control and epidemiological surveillance of the important illness in public health. Identification of the reservoirs for zoonoses can help to clarify how the pathogens are maintained in nature, leading to more effective disease control and avoiding indiscriminate extermination of wild animals.

Aims: The objective of this study was to describe the genetic identification of 106 samples isolated from different mammalians species.

Methodology: This study was conducted using 106 tissue samples from wild and domestic mammals sent to rabies diagnosis in Pasteur Institute, Brazil. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA b gene and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) was used to confirm species identity.

Results and Conclusion: By sequencing the mtDNA cyt-b gene 10 orders, 20 families, 34 genera and 38 species of mammalians were identified. In conclusion, the method used at this work was efficient for identification of different species of mammalians. Animals identified at this work with same method, belong to high distance order, as marsupials, chiropters and primates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stimulation of Hepatocytes Repair by Fruit Juice of Opuntia ficus indica in Anti Cancer Drug Cyclophosphamide (CP)-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

Khalid N. Al-Kubaisy, Luay Y. Al- Essa, Maissa’ T. Shawagfeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23569

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating agent that has been used extensively in medicine as anti neoplastic agent for the treatment of different cancers worldwide. Chemotherapy with CP is associated with significant toxicity due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals resulting in increased levels of oxidative stress (OS) aiming to identify natural substances that would be effective in reducing the severity of CP.

Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) is an indigenous medicinal plant possesses wide range of medicinal properties. It is used in traditional folk medicine and nutrition in many countries. In this study, we examined the effects of prickly pear fruit’s juice on liver damage in order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects against hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity induced in mice by CP at a dosage of (75 mg/kg) body weight.

The degree of liver injury was analyzed using serum biochemical markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the total protein and albumin contents. Further, the liver analyzed for the degree lipid peroxide (LPO) as (MDA) and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, the cytotoxicity induced by CP treatment was substantiated by the reduction of hepatic cells nuclieic acids, protein, glutathione and increased lipid peroxide levels due its prooxidant nature.

Treatment of mice with cactus fruit juice after CP- dosing statistically restored the serum hepatic markers (AST, ALT, LDH), total protein and albumin, hepatic cells nucleic acids and antioxidant levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urinary Schistosomiasis among Primary School Children in Dutsin-Ma Town, Katsina State, Nigeria

J. A. Bawa, T. Auta, I. Msughter, Y. A. Umar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25076

Aims: To assess the prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Dutsin-Ma town, Katsina State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Five schools were selected using simple random sampling technique without replacement.

Place and Duration of Study: Dutsin-ma Local Government Area of Katsina state, Nigeria and laboratory study was at Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin-Ma between April and June 2015.

Methodology: Urine filtration technique was employed to process urine specimens and presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs were determined microscopically. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect socio-demographic data and water contact activities information.

Results: Out of the 300 urine samples examined, 52 (17.3%) were positive for urinary schistosomiasis, with 37 (12.3%) males and 15 (5.0%) females showing significant difference in the prevalence rate in the sex (X2cal= 25.0, X2tab = 9.5 at P<0.05 and df=2). Age group 10-13 years, 25 (61.0%) had highest prevalence of infection, while the lowest was in age group of 2-5 years, 3 (7.9%). Those who use dams/reservoirs as source of water for domestic use had highest prevalence, 17 (23.9%) while the lowest was among pupils who use tap water, 4 (10.3%). Pupils whose parents’ occupation is farming had highest prevalence of 27 (24.6%), while those whose parents are civil servants had 3 (10.0%). Pupils who swim in dams had the highest prevalence of 25 (22.7%) while pupils who use swimming pools had zero (0%) prevalence.

Conclusion: Infection with Schistosoma haematobium has been established in this study area and there is need for public health campaign among pupils and parents/guardians.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy and Mode of Application of Local Beauveria bassiana Isolates in the Control of the Tea Weevil

Evelyn Cheramgoi, Fred M. E. Wanjala, Vincent Sudoi, John Wanyoko, Lizzy Mwamburi, Robert Nyukuri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23235

The tea crop in Kenya ubiquitously is exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses which can be devastating. This includes damage by five species of tea weevils. Tea weevils reported to occur in Kenya include, the Tea Root Weevil (Aperitmetus brunneus) [Hust], Nematocerus Weevil (Nematocerus sulcalus), Systates Weevil (Systates sp.), Kangaita/Kimari Weevil (Entypotrachelus meyeri) [micans/Kolbe] and Nyambene Weevils (Sprigodes mixtus) [Hust], among others, Adult weevils damage tea by defoliating nursery, newly established and mature tea orchard. Kimari/Kangaita weevils are documented to occur throughout the tea growing areas of Kenya. Occasional isolated epidemic outbreaks occur causing variable level of damage by defoliating mature tea bushes. Studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of two Beauveria bassiana Isolate compared with a pesticide, Karate, which contains Lambdacyholothrin as the active ingredient, in two different major tea weevils occurring geographic regions namely; Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) Igembe Factory catchment, Giciaro tea Farm of Meru District and Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) Mununga Factory catchment. Mr. Njogu Kiruki’s farm. The fields were laid out in a random complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The treatments were of two efficacious locally isolated B. bassiana isolates applied at a rate of 1x1013 conidia/ha applied with two mode of application; a Solid state fermented mixture in wheat bran and a spores liquid formulation, Karate which was sprayed on trash and the control. The effect of weevils on productivity of tea was significant with reduction in yield of between 30-33%. Similarly, Data for damage scores, percentage damaged leaves and canopy cover varied significantly (P<0.05) with the control having the highest damage (57%compared to 52%) and reduced canopy cover. Mature leaves showed a higher percentage of damaged leaves compared to pluckable leaves The performance of B. bassiana isolates, applied in a solid substrate or sprayed as conidia on the foliage, was comparable to that of Karate at the rate of 2L/ha. This study suggests the possibilities of the use of B. bassiana isolates to control tea weevils using either mode of application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Passiflora edulis Leaf Sample Storage Methods on RNA Quality and Suitability for Use in RT-PCR Assays

F. M. Munguti, D. C. Kilalo, M. W. Macharia, E. N. Magiri, J. K. Kinyua, T. A. Holton

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24497

It is prerequisite to extract Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) with high quality and integrity in order to carry out molecular biology studies in any plant species. Samples collected from remote fields require preservation before being processed for RNA extraction and downstream process like RT-PCR, real time PCR and genome-wide expression studies. It is therefore important to identify efficient and reliable sample storage methods that stabilize RNA, protecting it from the activities of RNAse in intact samples before analysis. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different storage conditions for passion fruit leaves on RNA quality and suitability for RT-PCR for two time-points; one week and two weeks post-harvest. Passion fruit leaf samples with suspected viral symptoms were collected from the field and stored using FTA® cards, RNAlater solution, cold ice followed by transfer to -80°C freezer, drying on silica gel and drying in between the sheets of newsprints (as herbarium). The samples were kept for 1 and 2 weeks before RNA extraction and subsequent semi-quantitative RT-PCR to amplify the housekeeping genes AtropaNad and Cowpea Aphid Borne Mosaic Virus (CABMV); one of the major viruses causing  passion fruit woodiness  disease in Kenya. Good RNA yield and quality were obtained from samples stored in silica gel for 1 and 2 weeks after collection similar to -80°C frozen samples a choice preservation method by many laboratories all over the world. Further results confirmed that RNA extracted from samples stored in silica gel was fit for RT-PCR amplification. This study shows that RNA of good yield and quality that is useful for downstream applications can be obtained from passion fruit leaf samples stored in silica gel.

Open Access Review Article

Gastrointestinal Microflora in Radiation Injury and Countermeasure

Anup Kainthola, Noopur Gupta, Paban K. Agrawala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24690

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of pathological conditions as a result of exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation (IR). Gastrointestinal (GI) system is highly sensitive to IR exposure and the symptoms include anorexia, nausea, vomiting and severe diarrhoea and can result in multiple organ failure. If remain untreated, it may result into death within 2 weeks with predominant cause being infection, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. GI tract is inhabited by several commensal bacteria and damage to the GI system facilitates bacterial translocation to other organs due to loss in its integrity. Bacterial translocation results in conversion of commensals into opportunistic pathogens which secrete variety of lethal toxins culminating in multiple organ failure. Present review focuses on elucidating consequences of radiation exposure to GI system, the microbiota inhibiting GI and critical analysis of data from different studies done so far to counter those consequences. Using traditional therapeutics, there are no promising measures developed so far, to counter such radiation emergency to an acceptable extent. Review of existing literature urges development of innovative countermeasures and fecal transplant.