Open Access Method Article

On the Choice of Linear Regression Algorithms for Biological and Ecological Applications

Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira, Joel Creed, Ricardo A. Scrosati, Anabela Santos, Georg Dutschke, Francisco Leitão, Aschwin H. Engelen, Oscar R. Huanel, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Marcos Mateus, Ramiro Neves

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25219

Model II regression (i.e. minimizing residuals obliquely) is the adequate alternative to Model I regression by Ordinary Least Squares (i.e. minimizing residuals vertically) given the absence of well-established dependence relationships or x measured with error. Yet, it has no perfect solution. Determining the true slope from errors-in-the-variables models requires the errors in and y estimated from higher order moments. However, their accurate estimation requires enormous data sets and thus they are not applicable to most ecological problems. The alternative Reduced Major Axis (RMA) is dependent on a strict set of assumptions, hardly met with real data, making it prone to bias, whereas Principal Components Analysis (PCA) becomes less reliable with decreasing correlations while x and presenting approximate variances. We used artificial data (allowing for the determination of the true slope) to demonstrate when RMA or PCA should be preferred. Consequently, we propose using PCA whenever r2+s2x/s2y is higher than 1.5. Otherwise, we suggest generating artificial data manipulated to match the structure of the original, and to test which method provides closer estimates to the input true slope. We provide a user-friendly script to perform this task. We tested the use of RMA and PCA with real data about intraspecific and interspecific biomass-density relations in algae and seagrass, algae frond growth, crustacean and bird morphometry, sardine fisheries and social sciences data, commonly finding widely divergent slope estimates leading to severely biased parameter estimations and model applications. Their analyses support the suggested approach for method selection summarized above.

Open Access Minireview Article

Bivalve Superpower: The Global Invasion of Corbiculid Clams

Francis Albert T. Argente

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/26448

Corbiculidae is a family of clams which has the capability of invading habitats. Particularly, there are three genera (Batissa, Polymesoda, Corbicula) which are widely distributed all over the world. The genus Batissa territories are the tropical India and Indo-Pacific Region. Polymesoda species are tropical colonizers while Corbicula conquered all continents except Antarctica. Dispersal of the bivalves may take place by different media which includes animal, human and environmental phenomena. C. fluminea is the most successful invader with widest scope of distribution, worldwide. The invasion of corbiculid clams may bring apparent instability in the environment. Controlling the invasion is necessary to maintain the balance of nature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Assessment on the Operational Performance of Fish Pond in Lagos State, Nigeria

O. E. Omofunmi, O. A. Olorunnisola

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24938

Technical factors that have potential influence on the performance of fish ponds in Lagos State were assessed. Questionnaires and on-the-spot assessment were used for collecting information on pond construction materials, water sources and pond operational problems. Variations in pond water depth during wet and dry seasons were measured using a levelling staff. Physical and chemical properties of soil and water samples were determined in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Seepage occurred in 77.8% of the ponds. Also, 80% of the ponds experienced between 20.0 and 81.0% reduction in water depth during the dry season and 18.0 to 34.0% increase in water depth during the rainy season. Soil pH (6.2 – 6.7) was within acceptance limits, Soil permeability (6.2 – 24.9 mm/hr) exceeded the permissible value 4 mm/hr. Nitrogen (20.20 – 29.30 ppm) and phosphorus (1.93 – 6.57 ppm) contents for different soil locations were less than the recommended values of 50.0 and 9.0 ppm respectively. Nitrogen (0.05 – 0.1 ppm) and Phosphorus (0.06 – 0.09 ppm) contents of the water sources were less than the recommended value of 2.0 ppm. These are indications that the soil locations and water sources were not suitable for pond construction and productivity. Improper location and construction on unsuitable site resulting in pond seepage coupled with poor quality of water supply were the major technical factors that could inhibit fish pond performance in Lagos State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Vitamin and Anatomical Studies on Gomphrena celosioides

C. V. Ilodibia, F. U. Ewere, E. E. Akachukwu, R. N. Adimonyemma, N. A. Igboabuchi, N. F. Okeke

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25546

Gomphrena celosioides is an ornamental plant with highly medicinal values. Available information on its anatomical studies is scanty while proximate composition and vitamins investigations are lacking. This study therefore focused on proximate composition, vitamin and anatomical evaluation of its various parts usingstandard methods. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed for data analysis. Moisture, ash and crude fiber were highest in the stem (64.20±0.14, 8.26±0.00 and 18.66±0.01) respectively. Total protein and fat contents were highest in the leaf (0.44±0.00 and 0.52±0.00) respectively while carbohydrate was highest in the root (33.21±0.63). The study on vitamins showed that vitamins A and C contents were highest in leaf (1.96±0.01) and (1.68±0.01) respectively and lowest in root (1.57±0.02) and (1.47±0.01) respectively. Anatomical result revealed similar features in their epidermis and cortex and differences in their vascular bundles arrangement. This work has demonstrated that the plant is highly nutritious. Apart from its use as an ornamental, the parts could be used as food to supplement our daily nutrient needs. Also the anatomical result is an additional aid to the taxonomic characterization of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Intermetamorphic Larval Stage of a Mantis Shrimp and Its Contribution to the 'Missing-Element Problem' of Stomatopod Raptorial Appendages

Joachim T. Haug, Nicole R. Rudolf, Philipp Wagner, Paula T. Gundi, Lara-Leonie Fetzer, Carolin Haug

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25938

In eumalacostracan crustaceans the thoracic appendages usually have seven elements along the main axis of the appendage. Mantis shrimps are an exception: their raptorial sub-chelate maxillipeds (anterior thoracopods) have only six such elements. Hence it has been speculated which two of the original seven elements have become conjoined in mantis shrimps. So far this question remains unanswered due to the lack of a proper reference point of identifying individual original elements. One candidate for such a reference point would be the exopod, which is unfortunately absent in adult stomatopods. Antizoea larvae possess exopods on the maxillipeds, but lack subdivision along the main axis of the appendage. We describe here a specimen that is right in the transition between the antizoea larval phase and the next larval phase (erichthus). It still possesses an exopod, but also additionally a subdivision into discrete elements on the maxillipeds. With this it provides an important reference scheme for solving the elemental identity in mantis shrimp maxillipeds. Our study aims at contributing new data to the identification of individual original elements of stomatopod maxillipeds. Our findings clearly falsify the suggestion that the basipod has become conjoined either with the coxa or with the endopod element 1 (ischium). In conclusion, our findings in combination with data from the fossil record suggest that stomatopods possess a carpo-propodus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Ecofriendly Botanicals of Barleria longiflora Linn. F. (Acanthaceae) against Armyworm Spodoptera litura Fab. and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

V. Chennaiyan, R. Sivakami, A. Jeyasankar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/23691

This study to investigate the crude extracts effect of Barleria longiflora against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Antifeedant, larvicidal, and the inhibitory activities of B. longiflora were observed with different solvent extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Significant effect has been observed in ethyl acetate extracts of B. longiflora compared with other solvent extract and control. Even though ethyl acetate extracts of B. longiflora showed higher percentage of antifeedant (79.40 and 77.36%) and larvicidal activities (70.96 and 68.70%) against S. litura and H. armigera,respectively. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were high on ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by extract treated larvae. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of Coumarin, saponins, steroids and tannins in ethyl acetate extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of Interleukin‐18 in Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Healthy Subjects

Zeinab Rezaei Esfahrood, Davood Zare, Javad Zavar Reza, Farzaneh Rahmanian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25982

Aims: Cytokines play a key role in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to measure and compare the levels of Interleukin (IL)-18 in both saliva and gingival cervicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls.

Study Design: In this descriptive study we assessed the levels of IL-18 in unstimulated whole saliva and GCF samples among patients with chronic periodontitis and individuals with healthy periodontium.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of periodontology and Department of biochemistry, Services Institute of Shahid Sadughi University of Medical Science, between May 2015 and Jan 2016.
Methodology: Thirty two subjects were divided into two groups; 16 individuals with healthy periodontium and 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. GCF and saliva samples were obtained. The concentrations of IL-18 in GCF and saliva were determined using ELISAs.
Results: There was no significant difference between the levels of IL-18 in saliva and GCF samples among the study groups (Respectively P= 0.44 and P= 0.38). Also, significantly different was not observed while comparing the IL-18 level of saliva with the IL-18 level of GCF in both healthy subjects (P= 0.8) and patients with chronic periodontitis (P= 0.61).
Conclusion: Similar levels of IL-18 among study groups suggested that levels of IL-18 in saliva and GCF cannot be used as a predictable biomarker for early diagnosis of periodontal disease.