Open Access Original Research Article

Parasite Contamination of Nigerian Currencies in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria

Okoh Arome Leonard, Morenikeji Olajumoke

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/24735

This study was conducted to determine the level of contamination of naira notes by parasites in Ibadan city. Naira notes of all denominations (₦5, ₦10, ₦20, ₦50, ₦100, ₦200, ₦500 and ₦1000) were randomly collected from students, butchers, food vendors and petrol stations, and checked for parasites using standard parasitological techniques. Out of a total of 192 naira notes collected, 27 (14.0%) were found to be contaminated with parasites. None of the clean and polymer notes were contaminated with any parasite. The parasites recovered from paper notes included Enterobius vermicularis (3.6%), hookworm (3.1%), A. lumbricoides (1.6%) and Strogyloides stercoralis (1.0%). The very dirty/mutilated naira notes were more contaminated (32.8%) than the dirty ones, (9.4%). The one hundred naira (₦100) notes had the highest contamination of 41.7% followed by the ₦200 and ₦500 notes which had 29.2% each. According to sources of currency, contamination was highest on notes collected from food vendors and butchers, while notes from students and petrol stations had lesser contamination There was a statistically significant association between  the rate of parasitic contamination of the currency and the denomination of the currency and between parasite contamination and physical condition of the currency (p < .05) while the association between the prevalence of parasitic contamination of the naira notes and the source was found not statistically significant  (p > .05.). The result of this study shows that bank notes can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of pathogenic organisms. Good personal hygiene practices such as washing of hands after handling dirty currency is recommended to curtail the spread of these parasites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Garden Egg (Solanum aethiopicum) Leaf Extract in Beta-cells of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

H. K. Okafor, A. I. Odugbemi, C. B. Okezie, M. K. Achebe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/26841

Aim: Diabetes and cardiovascular disorders have continued to pose serious threats to humans. Hence researches have been ongoing on discovery of more antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic plants. Therefore, this study evaluated the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic and histopathological profiles of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

Procedure: In the present study, 80% methanol extract of Solanum aethiopicum leaf extract was tested on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. The experimental rats were randomly grouped into 2 control groups namely distilled water and glibenclamide. The distilled water group served as the negative control group while the glibenclamide group served as the positive control group. The other 3 experimental groups were given different doses of Solanum aethiopicum leaf extracts namely 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight respectively. Diabetes was then induced through a single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin which is a known beta cytotoxin. Blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer were used to monitor the blood glucose levels at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Samples of blood were then collected and passed through centrifugation process to obtain serum used for the determination of the hepatic, renal, lipid parameters. In addition, the diabetic Wistar rats’ pancreas extract was used for determination of histopathological changes after extract treatment.

Results: Solanum aethiopicum leaf extract daily oral administration across all dosages (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) resulted in significant reduction of level of blood glucose (P≤0.05) as well as improving liver and kidney activities including hyperlipidaemia associated with diabetes. The extract also had a beneficial effect on the histopathological changes of the pancreas in streptozotocin induced diabetes.

Conclusions: Solanum aethiopicum leaf extracts possess antidiabetic activities and also show beneficial health effects on the hepatic and renal profile as well as total lipids levels. Solanum aethiopicum leaf extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in streptozotocin induced diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Biochemical Response of Cassava (Manihot esculentus, Crantz) to Spent Carbide and Diesel Oil Wastes

F. B. G. Tanee, S. I. Mensah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/27174

Aim: To determine the morphological and biochemical response of cassava (Manihot esculentus, Crantz) to spent carbide (SC) and diesel oil (DO) wastes.

Place and Duration of Study: The 14 week experimental trial was conducted at University of Port Harcourt Ecological Centre field.

Methodology: The treatments consisted of 8 concentrations of SC and DO wastes alongside a control. These were: A – Control (no pollutant application); B – 50 g SC and 100 ml DO; C – 100 g SC and 50 ml DO; D – 100 g SC and 100 ml DO; E – 50 g SC and 50 ml DO; F – 100 ml DO; G – 50 ml DO; H – 50 g SC; I – 100 mg SC were used in a 2 kg soil each and laid in a completely randomized design with 5 replications.

Results: Results showed that 50 g and 100 g SC treatments improved the shoot length, leaf area and number; and biomass (fresh weight, dry weights and shoot-root ratio) yields of cassava while reductions were observed in DO (single or mixed application) as compare to the control. The chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of cassava were negatively affected with the exception of 100 g SC/50 ml DO treatment in which the chlorophyll content was significantly higher than the control.

Conclusion: Therefore, SC at 50 and 100 g single treatments have stimulatory effect while DO have inhibitory effect on cassava. Hence, designated sites should be created for the dumping of such wastes to avoid dumping on nearby farmlands.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Mutagenesis on Germination, Growth and Fertility in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Vedna Kumari, Harinder Kumar Chaudhary, Rajendra Prasad, Ashok Kumar, Amar Singh, Sanjay Jambhulkar, Suman Sanju

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/26983

In order to study the effect of mutagenesis on germination, growth and fertility in sesame, the seeds of a local variety ‘LTK-4’ were got irradiated with 6 gamma radiation doses viz., 150Gy, 300Gy, 450Gy, 600Gy, 750Gy and 900Gy at BARC, Mumbai. The seeds were also treated with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% EMS. About 100 seeds of each dose along with control ‘LTK-4’ were sown in pots at CSKHPKV, Palampur during kharif, 2013. The observations were recorded on percent germination, root length (cm), shoot length (cm) and plant survival. Besides, about 2000 treated seeds per dose/concentration were grown in randomized block design with three replications each at CSKHPKV, Palampur and RSS, Akrot (H.P.) during kharif, 2013. The observations on percent germination, plant survival, reduction in plant survival over control and survival till maturity were recorded at appropriate stages of crop growth. The analysis of variance indicated that all the 9 treatments differed significantly for seed germination and plant survival parameters indicating the presence of sufficient variability for these parameters. Under field conditions, the maximum reduction in survival over control was observed in 900Gy (87.7%) while lowest was observed in 150Gy (61.9%). Likewise, percent survival was highest in 0.5% EMS (39.3%) and reduced thereafter with increasing concentration of EMS. Percent pollen fertility reduction ranged from 3.1% in 150Gy to 28.5% in 900Gy dose while in chemical mutagen, it ranged from 7.1% in 0.5% EMS to 31.5% in 1.5% EMS at both locations. Maximum injury as percent of control was observed in 900Gy dose (59.6%) and 1.5% EMS (42.2%) in chemical mutagen. Overall, a dose dependent relationship was observed between biological damage (%) and type of mutagen used. Higher doses of gamma radiations and EMS both caused considerable reduction in all biological parameters. Based upon the sensitivity of mutagens, EMS treatments were highly effective for modifying majority of the traits in the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Nomadic Cattle Herds in Eruwa, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria

Oluwole Akinola Stephen, Adeniran Adebiyi Abdulhakeem, Mogaji Hammed Oladeji, Shittu Emmanuel Olanrewaju, Alabi Oladimeji Michael, Odoemene Simeone, Ekpo Uwem Friday

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/28400

Aim: Nomadic farming of cattle is a common practice in rural farming area of Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among nomadic cattle herds in Eruwa, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Place of Study: The study was conducted in Eruwa, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: Faecal samples were collected from 177 cattle across 6 randomly selected nomadic cattle herds in Eruwa. Faecal samples were collected and processed using the Sodium-acetate-acetic acid ether concentration method followed by microscopic examination for gastrointestinal parasites ova or larva. Questionnaires were also administered to herd’s handlers to obtain demographic information and deworming history of animals. Data obtained were analysed using IBM SPSS software version 20.0 and confidence interval was set at p<0.05.

Results: A total of 177 cattle were examined, with their age ranging from 2-204 months old, and majority of them 107 (60%) were females. An overall prevalence of 62.7% was recorded for any gastrointestinal helminth infection which include Ascaris spp., Fasciola spp., Ostertagia spp, Trichostongylus spp and Moniezia spp. Fasciola spp was the most prevalent (22.6%) followed by Ascaris spp (10.2%) and Monieziaspp was the least prevalent with 2.3%. However, there exists no significant difference in prevalence of infection by sex, age and across herds.

Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among nomadic cattle which can be controlled through provision of grazing reserved areas and regular deworming of cattle.

Open Access Review Article

Biosynthesised Silver Nanoparticles from Fungi as Antimicrobial Agents for Endo-Perio Lesions – A Review

Kiran R. Halkai, Jayashree A. Mudda, Vasundhara Shivanna, Vandana Rathod, Rahul Halkai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25756

Even after rapid development in the treatment modalities and contemporary dental practice, still we encounter the failures due to endodontic, periodontal or combined lesions. Complete elimination of bacteria is the key for successful treatment. The emerging new microorganisms, increase in the number of resistant microbial strains and complexity of the tooth system demands the development of new treatment strategies to control the disease process and to achieve high success rate. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are considered to be the best antimicrobial agents because of their unique mode of action, broad spectrum of activity and biocompatibility. Concern has been raised on the toxicity of chemical agents used in AgNps synthesis. Compared with the synthetic methods, biological methods provide a novel idea for the production of nano-materials. Therefore, nanotechnology rather biosynthesized nanoparticles is the field of interest for research. This review article highlights the application of biosynthesised AgNps produced from fungi as antimicrobial agents for endodontic, periodontal or combined lesions.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Plant Essential Oils in Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Control

M. E. Aline Noutcha, Nsirim I. Edwin-Wosu, Regina E. Ogali, Samuel N. Okiwelu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/28432

Approximately half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and about 250 million deaths are reported annually. There are two strategic approaches to malaria management: prevention (vector control, drug prophylaxis and potential use of vaccines) and treatment (drugs, blood transfusion, etc). The use of botanicals, specifically essential oils is an alternative to the current use of synthetics and pyrethroids. Essential oils can be used as larvicides and repellents. The major constituents of those that have been used in mosquitoes are mainly terpenoids (Acyclic Monoterpenoids, Monocyclic Monoterpenoids, Sesquiterpenoids, Bicyclic Monoterpenoids, Diterpenoid). Earlier, in vitro physicochemical assays characterized most of them as antioxidants. However, recent studies suggest that at least in part, the encountered beneficial effects of essential oils are due to pro-oxidant effects at the cellular level. Approximately 40 plant species in about 10 families dominated by Labiateae (Lamiaceae) and Asteraceae, have provided essential oils for experimental studies as larvicides and repellents to mosquitoes. Results from both studies have been very promising. LC50s varied across plant and mosquito species and across geographical locations within plant species. In repellency tests, RD50 also varied across plant and mosquito species. Some of these essential oils are promising candidates as larvicides in Integrated Vector Management (IVM) in Malaria Management that combines: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), use of Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN) and larviciding. As repellents, they will contribute to the reduction in human-mosquito contact, an important component of protection, a strategic approach to malaria management.