Open Access Case Report

Acute Datura stramonium Poisoning in East of Algeria – Three Cases

N. Mahdeb, Z. Benouadah, T. Zebiche, R. Hadjab, A. Bouzidi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30120

Poisoning hallucinogenic plants rarely occurs in children but it is a significant problem for the emergency doctor. We report the case of three boys who suddenly exhibited behavioral problems, one of whom was in serious condition. The three children had no remarkable medical history and were not receiving prescription medication, healthy there. The rapid hospitalization of three children by their parents, who informed the physician taking the seeds of Datura by their children, facilitated the treatment. The doctor undertook gastric lavage for patients because it is performed by several authors. Two boys were able to leave the hospital the same evening; the third hard hit was evacuated to the University Hospital of Setif. The medical history should be taken several times in cases of unknown etiology, and doctors should keep in mind the possibility that anticholinergics unexplained symptoms could be the result of exposure to hallucinogenic plants like Datura.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation in Minerals Nutrients from Powders Deriving with Leaflets of Moringa oleifera L. and Beans of Vigna unguiculata W. for Fortification of the Flour Processed from New Shoots of Borassus aethiopum M.

Mahan Makado Romuald, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Sidibe Daouda, Coulibaly Adama, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/28729

This study aimed to evaluate mineral composition in the flour processed from new shoot tubers of Palmyra (B. aethiopum), and the powders of Moringa (M. oleifera) leaflets and Cowpea (V. unguiculata) beans for improving their valorization. Palmyra tubers and Cowpea beans were bought from sedentary saleswomen in the ‟V Baoulé” region in the Centre of Côte d'Ivoire, whereas Moringa leaflets were collected from fields in the same locations. Each vegetable was processed into meal, and then analyzed for mineral determination using energy dispersive spectrophotometry method. This technical revealed eight minerals in the samples assessed. With contents of 258.94 to 2012.35 mg/ 100 g DM, potassium was the major mineral element from overall samples. Furthermore, the Moringa powder was more provided (P‹.001) in calcium (1304.27 mg/ 100 g), potassium (2012.35 mg/ 100 g DM), phosphorous (557.92 mg/ 100 g), magnesium (481.24 mg/100 g), sodium (89.35 mg/100 g), iron (42.59 mg/ 100 g), copper (30.9 mg/ 100 g), and zinc (11.69 mg/ 100 g). Oppositely, the Palmyra flour was lower in minerals contents while the Cowpea powder recorded considerable amounts of minerals, especially for macroelements (15.95 to 1320.91 mg/ 100 d DM). Therefore, the Moringa leaflets and Cowpea beans are significant raw sources of mineral nutrients and could allow fortification of food recipes from Palmyra tubers for resulting in alternatives of food valorization and to address poverty and desert hazards in tropical countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

ABO Blood Groups and Malaria Parasitaemia in Outpatients of BMSH Port Harcourt, Rivers State

M. N. Wogu, F. O. Nduka, S. O. Nzeako

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/29928

A cross – sectional study was conducted to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria parasitaemia in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Thick and thin films made from venous blood samples collected from 1000 consenting outpatient study subjects, were stained with 10% Giemsa stains and viewed microscopically using oil immersion objective to detect malaria parasites following standard parasitological techniques. ABO blood group typing with monoclonal Antisera A, B and D was carried out using agglutination technique. An overall malaria prevalence of 32% was observed among the study subjects irrespective of blood groups. Blood groups A and O had higher malaria prevalence rates of 38% and 33% respectively while blood group AB had the least malaria prevalence rate of 13% (P<0.05). Malaria parasite density levels >1000 parasites/µL in relation to ABO blood groups showed a higher prevalence in blood group A and least prevalence in blood group O with rates of 29% and 3% respectively (P<0.05). This study showed that individuals with blood group O were susceptible to contracting uncomplicated malaria infections but had a high resistance to developing severe malaria parasitemia compared to individuals with blood groups A, B and AB. Malaria control strategies should be directed equally at individuals with the different ABO blood groups because more research is required to fully understand the relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria parasitemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Case Report on Serum Leptin Levels among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Dutse, North-West Nigeria

Mainasara Abdullah Sulaiman, Dahiru Shafi’u Gumel, Umar Zayyanu Usman, Anaja Peter Ocheni, Yakubu Abdulmumini, Rosemary Nwaelugo Adanze, Yeldu Mohammed Haruna

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/29570

Leptin is a peptide hormone produced mainly by white adipose cells. It helps to regulate appetite, fat stores and predispose individual to type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. We aim to establish the variations in serum levels of Leptin in subject with type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals in Dutse, Jigawa State, North–West Nigeria. This study was conducted using eighty (80) volunteers (40 males, 40 females) diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Clinic of Rasheed Shakoni Specialist Hospital, Dutse, age and gender matched control groups. Anthropometric parameters such as weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and biochemical parameters (Leptin, FBG, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were measured. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure of the diabetic group were found significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with healthy control group. Mean serum Leptin levels of diabetic group (5.76 ± 0.33 ng/ml) was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared with control group (6.68 ± 0.27 ng/ml). Mean FBG and HbA1c of the diabetic and control groups were (9.32 ± 0.54 mmol/l, 10.69 ± 0.25 %) versus (4.18 ± 0.08 mmol/l and 6.37 ± 0.12%), respectively. Serum Leptin levels in diabetic females (mean = 6.09 ± 0.46 ng/ml) and controls females (mean = 7.46 ± 0.45 ng/ml) was higher compared with diabetic males (mean = 5.43 ± 0.46 ng/ml) and control males (5.90 ± 0.24 ng/ml). Similarly, Leptin has significantly positive correlation with BMI in both the diabetic (r=0.562, p<0.01) and control groups (r=0.466, P<0.01). Also a positive correlation was observed between Leptin levels and WHR in the control group (r=0.399, p<0.01). The study indicated a reduced leptin levels among diabetics compared to controls. Serum Leptin level appears to play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and/or its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Recurrent Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia on Renal Prostanoid Production

Wael A. Alanazi, Selim Fakhruddin, Keith E. Jackson

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/29661

Aims: The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of recurrent insulin induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) on renal prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production during hypoglycemia-induced hypertension.

Study Design: In the current study, renal microdialysis was adapted as a sampling tool to evaluate the changes in renal interstitial prostanoids.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe between September 2015 – August 2016.

Methodology: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated for two weeks with 7U/kg subcutaneous insulin injections. On the 14th day, the hypoglycemic animals were divided into three groups (7U+vehicle), (7U+captopril), and (7U+NS398), and surgeries were performed. The carotid artery, jugular vein and bladder were cannulated for hemodynamic evaluation, drugs infusion and urine collection respectively. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the renal cortex and physiological saline was infused through the probe and dialysate was harvested. A 4 hour control period was then performed and followed by a 4 hour treatment period with vehicle, captopril (12 mg/kg) or NS398 (0.3 mg/kg) bolus infusions. The renal interstitial samples were analyzed for 6-keto-PGF (the stable PGI2 metabolite) and TXB2 (the stable TXA2 metabolite) by ELISA.

Results: During hypoglycemia, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was increased from 92±0.54 mmHg (day 0) to 142±1.08 mmHg (day 14) as compared to the saline treated group. The hypoglycemia-induced hypertension promoted the renal production of 6-keto-PGF1α (187±31 pg/ml) and TXB2 (382±35 pg/ml) as compared to saline treated animals keto-PGF1α (69±6.0 pg/ml) and TXB2 (172±10 pg/ml). Captopril and NS398 treatment blocked 6-keto-PGF1α (90±16 pg/ml and 63±12pg/ml respectively) when compared to the 7U+vehicle treated group (195±33 pg/ml). TXB2 was inhibited during captopril and NS398 treatment (211±28, and 128±23 pg/ml respectively) as compared to 7U+vehicle treated group (357±38 pg/ml).

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that RIIH induces prostanoids formation by renal AngII elevation which in turn enhances COX2 activity in the kidney.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of SOD, POD, PPO and CAT Enzyme Activities in Rumex obtusifolius L.

Esma Hande Alici, Gulnur Arabaci

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/29809

Aims: The purpose of this study was to measure antioxidant enzyme (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) activities of crude extract of Rumex obtusifolius L. in order to gain insight about this plant’s antioxidant potential.

Study Design: The study was composed of the collection of plant material, extractions of the antioxidant enzymes, activity measurements of the enzymes and finally evaluation of the experimental results.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry (biochemistry laboratories), Faculty of Science and Arts of Sakarya University, between June 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: Enzymatic antioxidant activity of this plant was investigated by carrying out catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity assays. Enzyme activities of the crude extract were measured by using spectrophotometric method. Optimum pH and temperature values of each enzyme were also determined for measurement of enzyme activities in ideal conditions.

Results: Finally, our results showed that Rumex obtusifolius L. crude extract had good activity for all the enzymatic procedures tested. The activity levels of enzymatic antioxidants polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase of the plant were found to be 12.8; 195.2; 38.7; 11.6 EU/mL, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature values of all the enzymes (except PPO: optimum temperature 30°C) tested were also found to be 7.0 and 25°C, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that this edible plant, Rumex obtusifolius L., might be a potential source of natural antioxidants with good antioxidant enzyme capacity.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal Plants Used for Management of Hypertension in Nigeria

Kingsley I. Eghianruwa, Olayinka A. Oridupa, Adebowale B. Saba

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/29045

Hypertension is a medical condition characterized by chronic elevation of arterial blood pressure. Management of this chronic disease is essential to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and prevent other end-organ damage leading to stroke, retinopathies, chronic renal disease amongst others. Conventional management involves use of beta-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, or diuretics.

Alongside these orthodox treatment regimens, traditional medicine systems in different parts of the world have means of treatment and management of hypertension which involves the use of herbs in the nature around man. However, these traditional practices are not standardized and there are no empirical bases for the use of many of these medicinal plants. This dearth of information prompted researchers to investigate the antihypertensive properties of claimed medicinal plants and probably determine the mechanism of action and bioactive principle(s) in these plants.

Medicinal plants used for treatment and management of hypertension in African Traditional Medicine practiced in Nigeria, West Africa are the focus of this review article. Studies on most of the plants are still at the rudimentary stage but results observed from these studies are noteworthy. Existing information on verification of traditional use and toxicity profile of these plants are documented here. Ethnomedical practices of different regions of Nigeria and some of the important plants used for treatment and management of hypertension are also discussed.