Open Access Method Article

Extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve Associated to “Chao” Estimator of the Number of Unrecorded Species: A Mathematically Consistent Derivation

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30522

Incomplete samplings are doomed to become common practice for many inventories of biodiversity, thereby inviting to extrapolate what the rate of accumulation of newly recorded species would be if sampling was to be continued any further. For this purpose, a new derivation is provided for the extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve associated to the “Chao” estimator of the number of unrecorded species. This new derivation strictly complies with the general mathematical relationship constraining the shape of any expression of the Species Accumulation Curve, while the extrapolation previously proposed by Chao & Chiu [1] does not. The mathematically relevant formulation for the extrapolation R(N) of the Species Accumulation Curve associated to “Chao” estimator is thus: R(N) = R(N0) + [f12/(2 f2)](1 – exp[– (2f2/f1/N0 ). (N – N0)]), with N0 as the actual sample size, f1 and f2 as the numbers of species actually recorded once and twice and R(N) as the extrapolated number of species expected to be recorded as a function of sample size N (N> N0). Accounting for the constraining relationship mentioned above is also essential in another respect: it allows to extrapolate separately the numbers of species expected to be recorded 0-, 1-, 2-, >2- times, thereby permitting to analyse rationally the process of species accumulation during continuously growing sampling. At last, the preferred range of applicability of both “Chao” estimator and the associated extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve estimator is discussed, by comparison with the alternative type estimator Jackknife-2.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Photographic Checklist of the Orthocladiinae of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

John Onwuteaka, Michael Uwagbae

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30006

Aims: Compilation of the photographic checklist of the Chironomids under the subfamily Orthocladiinae from the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The compilation used records of specimens collected over a period of thirty years from many field trips.

Study Design and Methodology: The photographic keys were described to show the cephalothorax with mentum, mandibles, premandibles and ventromental plates. Orthocladiinae larvae collected from different substrates with different sizes of pond nets were preserved in 75% alcohol. Slide mounted samples were identified to genus and species. Optimal photography was obtained using a Brunnel digital microscope (DN-117M) equipped with a Camera system and a ScopeImage 9.0 software, allowing automated retention of focused parts and a sequence of exposures at different focal depths.

Results: A total of thirty six illustrations, consisting of six genera and ten species, were documented. These were Cricotopus sylvestris, Cricotopus sp., Cricotopus fuscus, Cricotopus triannulatus, Diamesa sp., Diamesa heterodentata, Eukiefferiella sp., Heterotanytarsus sp., Trissocladius grimshawi, Limnophyes pusillus and Trissocladius sp. Cricotopus sylvestris, Cricotopus sp., Cricotopus fuscus, Cricotopus triannulatus, Diamesa sp., Diamesa heterodentata, and Eukiefferiella sp. occur in lotic waters. Those that occurred only in lentic waters were Heterotanytarsus sp., Trissocladius grimshawi, Limnophyes pusillus and Trissocladius sp. Three of the genera recorded in the literature of studies in the Niger Delta, namely Cricotopus, Eukiefferiella and Limnophyes, are in the current description while new genera to the literature of the Niger Delta were Heterotanytarsus, Trissocladius and Limnophyes.

Conclusion: This photographic checklist provides additional contribution to the taxonomic metadata of the Chironomids of the Niger Delta. This can be used to provide new insights in water quality management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influences of Explant Type on in vitro Regeneration of Malaysian Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) var CB 4

Z. Alizah, Z. Zamri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30238

Regeneration system via organogenesis has been developed for Malaysian chilli (Capsicum annuum L) var. CB4. Hypocotyls, cotyledons and petioles from In vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on medium comprising of Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l IAA and 25 g/L DJ nutrient. Hypocotyls and petioles were found to be the best explants, based on its ability to produce shoot buds compared to cotyledons. Shoot buds were elongated on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l IAA, 15 g/L DJ, 2 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/l AgNO3 and 15 g/L DJ nutrient. Rooting was induced on MS basal containing IAA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-prevalence of Dengue IgM Antibodies in Patients Suspected of having Dengue Fever

Faiza Asghar, Nageen Hussain, Fayqa Komal, Qandeel Fatima

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30090

Background: Dengue virus infection is increasingly recognized as one of the world’s emerging infectious disease. In recent decades, dengue fever has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in tropical and sub-tropical areas throughout the world. Dengue fever is endemic in Pakistan since 1994. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of sero-prevalence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies in Lahore during 2012 to 2013.

Results: Serum samples were collected from 90 patients visiting Jinnah hospital and Mayo hospital with the history of fever and clinically suspected dengue. The sero-prevalence of dengue virus specific IgM antibodies was determined using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) ELISA-DENM0120 kit. The anti-dengue IgM antibodies positivity was found to be 48%. The positive dengue cases were higher in male (76.4%) as compared to female (23.6%) though it was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Among different age groups, the highest positive cases (48.9%) were from age group of 15 to 25 years followed by the age group of 35 to 45 years (17%). Out of two hospitals, the highest positive cases were in Jinnah hospital (72.3%) followed by Mayo hospital (27.6%). Age and gender were found to be independent predictors. Fever was the most commonly reported symptom among dengue suspected patients (81.1%) followed by myalgia (72.2%). Thrombocytopenia (PLT<150.0x103) was found in 100% patients and leukopenia (TLC<4.0 x103) was found in 49% of dengue fever suspected subjects.

Conclusion: This study indicates that prevalence of dengue virus infection is increasing in Pakistan especially Lahore. Proper control measure should be provided. IgM capture ELISA has become the most accepted technique for the diagnosis of dengue in developing countries like Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriocins Contributing in Rhizospheric Competition among Fluorescent Pseudomonads

Samia Mezaache-Aichour, Nora Haichour, Abdelhadi Guechi, Jane Nicklin, Mohamed M. Zerroug

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30682

Aims: To examine the production of bacteriocins through the study of a group of rhizospheric Pseudomonas isolates already known to produce metabolites that are antagonistic to fungi.

Methodology: Fourteen rhizospheric strains of fluorescent Pseudomonads spp., were tested as well as two referenced strains Pseudomonas protogens CHA0 and Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84, for their ability to produce induced bacteriocins. The induction is carried out first by UV light, and secondly by mitomycin C.

Results: In addition to the reference strains, six isolates were found to produce bactericidal substances after UV light induction against Pseudomonas target bacteria but also against other genera (Escherichia and Staphylococcus). Producing strains were treated with mitomycin C, and then lysed with chloroform. Analysis of the lysates by trypsin and freezing treatments, suggests that the active compounds are of high molecular weight.

Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that these bacteria could be good competitors for their introduction as biocontrol agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Different Hormones Dose for Breeding of Green Back Mullet, Chelon subviridis

Md. Shariful Islam, Nilufa Begum, Syed Lutfor Rahman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/30502

The study was conducted in the hatchery complex of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Brackishwater Station, Paikgacha, Khulna, Bangladesh. The body weights of collected male fishes were ranged from 42-50 g and that of female fishes were from 50-58 g. The fish were divided into different groups, which were administered with different hormones: Pituitary Gland (3, 4 & 5 Mg of dried PG/Kg of both male and female fish), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (2500, 3000 & 3500 IU of HCG/Kg of both male and female fish), Synthetic gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (25, 30 & 35 Microgram of S-GnRHa/Kg), Only the group treated with S-GnRHa hormone exhibited spawning activity. Only 25, 30, 35 Microgram of S-GnRHaa (Ovupin)/Kg of dose injected fish showed spawning activity. In 25 Microgram/Kg S-GnRHa hormone dose, the spawning period, fertility rate, hatching period and hatching rate of green back mullet were 33-35 hrs, 72%, 21-24 hrs and 70%. In 30 Microgram/Kg S-GnRHa hormone dose, the spawning period, fertility rate, hatching period and hatching rate green back mullet were 33-35 hrs, 83%, 21-24 hrs, 81%. In 35 Microgram/Kg S-GnRHaa hormone dose, the spawning period, fertility rate, hatching period and hatching rate of green back mullet were 32-34 hrs, 80%, 20-22 hrs, 76%. All dose of S-GnRHa here shown more or less similar result. The present study might be useful for quality seed production on parse (Chelon subviridis) during induced breeding in hatcheries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Evaluation of Various Parts of Canna indica L.

K. Okonwu, C. A. Ariaga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/31029

The nutritional composition of the leaf, rhizome and seed of Canna indica L. were examined. The nutritional composition of C. indica plant showed that the rhizome of C. indica contains 50.66% moisture, 4.17% carbohydrate, 4.81% protein, 2.85% ash, 4.35% lipid and 33.16% fibre. The leaf on the other hand, contains 87.54% moisture, 2.19% carbohydrate, 4.59% protein, 3.40% ash, 1.08% lipid and 1.18% fibre. The seed contains 13.95% moisture, 41.15% carbohydrate, 11.60% protein, 1.90% ash, 7.50% lipid and 23.90% fibre. However, the protein, carbohydrate, lipid and fibre content of the seed were high when compared to the rhizome and the leaf of C. indica while the leaf had more moisture and ash content. This study shows that C. indica has a high nutritional content which differs among the leaf, seed and rhizome. The seed had more nutritional value than the rhizome and the leaf of Canna indica.