Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Gut Bacteria in Spodoptera litura (F) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hubn) Larvae

Hanamant Gadad, A. S. Vastrad, P. U. Krishnaraj

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31627

Gut bacterial diversity in field and laboratory strain of S. litura and H. armigera was studied USING Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Results showed that field collected larvae found to be had more diverse of gut bacterial community with greater Shannon diversity index and Operational Taxonomic Units (OUT’s) as compared to laboratory strain. Shannon diversity index of field collected S. litura and H. armigera larvae recorded were 1.89 and 2.60 for the primer pair PRBA338-PRUN518 respectively. While another primer pair E1052-E1193 recorded Shannon diversity index of 2.65 and 2.03 respectively. On the contrary laboratory reared larvae of S. litura recorded Shannon diversity index of 1.60 for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer pair and 2.20 for E1052-E1193 primer pair. Shannon diversity index for H. armigera was 2.02 and 1.09 against PRBA338-PRUN518 and E1052-E1193 primer pairs respectively. With respect to Operational Taxonomic Units (OUT’s) again field collected test insect larvae shown higher OUT’s for both primer pairs. Field collected S. litura larvae shown 17.20 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 13.60 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair. Similarly Field collected H. armigera larvae shown 21.00 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 15.00 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair. Whereas laboratory reared larvae of S. litura recorded 9.00 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 11.40 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair and another test insect H. armigera recorded 11.00 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 7.40 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair. DGGE analysis indicated that field strains of both test insects showed more diversity in gut bacteria as compared to laboratory reared strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Quercetin and Pectinase on Spore Germination and Hyphal Growth of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Biomass Production of Nicotiana tabacum L. and Calopogonium mucunoides desv

E. L. M. Ngonkeu, D. Nwaga, R. Tsetchoua, A. Mogo, A. F. Mongoue, T. A. N. Mballa, L. Manet, O. Boyomo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32061

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of mycorrhizal fungi to rapidly colonize roots of host plants and to predict their competitive advantage over native strains. Different concentrations of quercetin and pectinase were used to stimulate hyphal growth and to determine the germination rate of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a Petri dish. The best strains were used to inoculate two host plants under green house conditions in the presence of high concentrated polyphenol and enzyme. The essays were carried out in the laboratory of biotechnology center; University of Yaounde I. Five strains of AMF from Cameroonian’s soils were identified and compared with exotic strain. Water agar 0.7% was mixed with three different concentrations of quercetin (0, 2.5 and 5 µM) and pectinase (0, 1.6 and 3.2 units/ml). Nicotiana tabacum and Calopogonium mucunoides were used to determine the root colonisation percent of AMF and shoot biomass after inoculation.

Results showed that for most species of AMF, 5% quercetin and 3.2 units/ml of pectinase significantly stimulate in vitro spore germination and hyphal growth. Treatment combining quercetin and pectinase could lead to a synergetic effect on mycorrhizal symbiosis and plant performance.

These compounds which can modify the symbiosis physiology may be of great importance in the regulation of plant and soil microbe interaction. They could also contribute in stimulating the growth of these strict biotrophic fungi under in vitro culture, and to enhance an increase in plant biomass.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of NERICA 8 (Oryza sativa L.) and JL24 (Arachis hypogaea L.) Spatial Arrangement on Agronomic Traits Performance in Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon

Thomas Arsene Nsea Mballa, Eddy Léonard Mangaptché Ngonkeu, Dorothy Kenyi Malaa, Joseph Mouen, Paco Meppe, Carine Petmi, Vanessa Nanda, Honoré Tekeu, Noe Woin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32099

Intercropping system is the most practiced soil fertility management strategies by small scale farmers in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to identify the least competitive rice-groundnut spatial arrangement and to assess the correlation between agronomic traits in an intercropping system condition for both crops. The experiment was carried out in March 2015, in RCB designed with four treatments and four replications involving NERICA 8 and JL24 genotypes. Fourteen agronomic traits were collected, analyzed and Pearson’s correlation test was performed at 1% and 5% level of probability. 3R+1G spatial arrangement gave nodules ˂ 75 plant-1, 4R+2G gave 98.13 plant-1and SG gave 161 plant-1. For 100 seed weight and number of grains plant-1, 3R+1G gave the lowest value followed by 4R+2G and SG. No significant different was recorded for rice grain yield, while significant different was obtained in groundnut, 3R+1G recorded the lowest value (0.47tha-1). Shelling % (r = 0.692*), number of grain plant-1(r = 0.75**) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.756**) gave positive correlation with grain yield.  Number of grain panicle-1 gave positive correlation with rice grain yield (r = 0.906**). These results can be included in crop breeding programs, to sustain rice-groundnut intercropping system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Dietary Intake of Metals through Fish Consumption in Bayelsa, Nigeria: Swali Market-River Nun, Case Study

Arinze O. Uche, Francis D. Sikoki, Roseline S. Konya, Bernard B. Babatunde, Marcus O. Ifeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31494

Thirty-three samples belonging to five fish families were investigated for metal load with a view to determining the health implications on infants, children and adults in Yenegoa where the fish samples were collected. The metal analysis was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF); dietary intake and health impact were calculated for metals using the Estimated Dietary Intake (EDI) and Hazard Index (HI) respectively. The study revealed that the family Cichlidae had the highest metal load (513.20 mg/kg) followed by Synodontidae (303.97 mg/kg), Mormyridae (278.99 mg/kg), Mugilidae (278.33 mg/kg) and Cyprinidae (229.43 mg/kg). The difference between the metal load for each family was statistically significant at P<0.05. For metal species, the order from the highest to the lowest was Fe>Zn>Cr>Ni>Mn>Cu>Ba>V>Pb>Cd>As>Hg corresponding to mean values of 137.79, 60.59, 25.03, 18.86, 18.25, 18.12, 10.31, 8.71, 2.29, 2.12, 0.55, 0.15 mg/kg respectively. The EDI showed that seven (7) metals for adults and six (6) metals for children out of the twelve (12) metals in the study were above the limit set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and FAO/WHO. The HI revealed that eight (8) out of the twelve (12) metals studied were >1for both children and adults while infants had just three (3) metals >1. This calls for serious concern for consumers of fish in Yenegoa and may also be indicative of some high level of water and sediment pollution in the surrounding waters.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Different Kinds of Vegetables with Reference of Nephroprotective Activity

Rupanjali Dobhal, Namita Singh, Parul Sexna, Acharya Balkrishna, P. P. Upadhyaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/30591

In this review articles are aimed to elucidate the list of nephroprotective vegetables, which are scientifically proved in treating renal disorders. Now a day’s nephro failure is a serious problem of human being, every one-third family suffers this critical problem of nephro failure. Renal diseases are paramount health issues. Vegetable has emerged as a skilled approach with sensible values in handling in kidney diseases and developing an affordable therapy to treat severe kidney diseases. The use of vegetables as nephroprotective is a major avenue in Indian perspectives particularly for treating kidneys damage, which require to be explored more successfully as there are many literatures available on these aspects. On the basis of pharmacological evidences, vegetables are vital nephroprotective agents. Vegetables possess significant nephroprotective activity against induced screening methods such as cisplatin, gentamicin and paracetamol. Vegetables having possessed great potential source of vitamins and different compounds which are useful for the development of effective therapy to bloodshed types of nephro problems.