Open Access Original Research Article

Germination Characteristics of Parinari curatellifolia Planch. Ex Benth, Vitex doniana Sweet and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam) Watermann Seeds

Tiga Neya, Edhit Daboue, Oble Neya, Issaka Ouedraogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32209

Germination characteristics studies of seeds of three local species in Burkina Faso namely Parinari curatellifolia, Vitex doniana and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides have been carried out. The aim of this study was to carry out the appropriate pre-treatment and temperature which give the best percentage of seed germination for these three locales species. For that the seed were placed in different temperature 15°C; 20°C; 25°C; 30°C; 35°C and 19 pre-treatment from Soaking in water x hours; Scalding, Cooking x minute, Soaking of sulfuric acid x minute, scarification and decorticating were applied for all seeds used for this study‘s. For temperature test, only Parinaria curatelifolia seeds are germinated at 35°C with 13%. Sulphuric acid pre-treatments during 60 mn for Vitex doniana seeds and 5 mn for Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides seeds gave the highest germination percentages in the laboratory, respectively 40% and 62%. None of the numerous pre-treatments applied to the seeds of Parinari curatellifolia, led to successful germination. While, for Vitex doniana and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides seeds we can conclude that their seeds are dealing with a physical dormancy that is overcome by chemical scarification, seeds of Parinari curatellifolia have a deeper dormancy, which may be physiological or combined (physical and physiological).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating of Cervical Caries and Periodontitis among Drug Abusers in an Iranian Population

Fatemeh Owlia, Mohammad Hasan Akhavan Karbassi, Mohammadali Sadeghipour, Asie Behnia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31183

Aims: Drug abuse is a matter socioeconomic problem, also can lead to many oral problems. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of cervical caries, gingivitis and periodontitis and partially dentate conditions among drug addicts in outpatient drug rehab centers in Yazd.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 drug addicts referred to 5 outpatient drug rehab centers in Yazd that were randomly selected. The data were collected through clinical examination and a standard questionnaire. Then analyzed using the chi-square test. Level of statistical significance is: P = .05.

Results: Of 200 addicts who were studied, there were 192 persons were male and 8 were females. Mean age was: 35 ± 15 years, the age range was 20-60 years. Percentages of oral of problem orderly were cervical caries (57%), periodontitis (63%), gingivitis (37%), partially edentulous (43%) and fully edentulous (21%). The most frequent drug abused was opium (91%) and heroin (27%), crystal (16%), hashish (11.5%). Pan (9.5%) and alcohol (8%). According to the chi-square test, there was a statistically significant relationship between age and cervical caries rate (P = .01). There was also a statistically significant relationship between age and periodontal status (P < .001). Relationship between all drugs and periodontal and cervical caries were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant relationship between age and edentulous status (P < .001).

Conclusion: The rate of cervical caries, periodontal problems and edentulous states in the addicted groups, are relatively high in comparison with non-addicted societies. Accordingly this indicates a need to implement policies to improve oral and dental awareness and health in drug addicts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Some Marine Sponges, and Its Biological, Repellent Effects against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Hussein A. El-Naggar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32450

Crude extracts of marine sponges, Negombata magnifica and Callyspongia siphonella were tested for their antimicrobial activity besides larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal and other biological effects against the filarial vector Culex pipiens. Three sub-lethal concentrations ranging as 8.4, 28.4 and 47.6 ppm for N. magnifica and 44.5, 327.4 and 610.3 ppm for C. siphonella were used.

The two marine sponges used in this study were collected from reefs by SCUBA diving. Spicules were prepared by dissolving the soft tissue of small pieces of sponge in sodium hypochlorite and washed with distilled water and ethanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity; in addition, the biological activities of the three sub-lethal concentrations used were evaluated against laboratory reared Cx. pipiens mosquito.

The results obtained showed interesting antifungal activity against fungal strains tested. N. magnifica extract showed quite promising broad-spectrum antibacterial activity due to its capacity to inhibit the growth of almost bacterial strains tested. Based on LC50 values, the toxicity of N. magnifica extract (47.6 ppm) was higher than that of C. siphonella (610.3 ppm). Mean larval and pupal durations of mosquitoes treated with N. magnifica extract were significantly (P<0.05) prolonged at higher sub-lethal concentrations; meanwhile, C. siphonella showed non-significant (P>0.05) prolongation. The N. magnifica extract was found to be more effective against the adult emergence than C. siphonella. There was a pronounced effect of the tested extracts on the number of eggs laid per female and this effect was concentration dependent, the fecundity of mosquitoes treated with N. magnifica extract was significantly (P<0.05) decreased to 86.7±5.8 eggs/♀, compared to 150±8.7 eggs/♀ for the control group, while it was 116.7±5.8 eggs/♀ for C. siphonella extract, vs. the control group. Vitellogenin synthesis and ovarian development of Cx. pipiens females were highly affected by tested extracts. Six protein bands with high molecular weights (175-90 KDa), which believed to be vitellogenin, were detected in the control group, while this number reduced to two bands in ovaries of N. magnifica and C. siphonella-treated females. Also, N. magnifica extract induced concentration dependent repellent activity against tested females mosquitoes than C. siphonella extract. These promising results in relation with antifungal and antibacterial activities open the way for complementary investigation in order to purify and identify active molecules.

The present investigations have helped to focus on some bioactive substances isolated from marine resources; these molecules, which possess antimicrobial and insecticidal activities, could be used as insecticidal agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Incorporation of Tribulus terrestris on Microbiology Characteristic of Cooked Chevon Sausages

Sabahu Noor, Zuhaib Fayaz Bhat

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32347

Aims: To Study the effect of incorporation of Tribulus terrestris/Gokshura (a natural meat preservative) on microbiology characteristic of cooked chevon sausages (goat meat sausages).

Methodology: Meat emulsion for chevon sausages was prepared and was divided in four parts, as follows  first part was kept as control and in which  Tribulus terrestris/Gokshura  was not added and rest three parts were incorporated with different levels of  Tribulus terrestris/Gokshura  viz. being T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%), T3 (0.75%). All samples were vacuum packaged and assessed for microbiological characteristic under refrigerated (41°C) conditions at regular intervals of 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days. Three independent experimental trials of the study were conducted and were carried out with duplicate sample analysis (n=6).

Results: Incorporation of Tribulus terrestris shows significant (P<0.05) effect on the microbiological characteristics of the products as treated products showed significantly lower values for microbial and yeast and mould counts. Based on microbiological parameters, the products incorporated up to 0.75% extract (T3) of Tribulus terrestris were optimized as best and the products remained safe up to 42nd day of refrigerated storage.

Conclusion: Tribulus terrestris successfully improved the shelf life of the products by decreasing the microbiological growth during refrigerated (41°C) storage, thus it is suggested to use it commercially as a natural meat preservative in meat industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Environmental Factors on Photosynthesis of Three Coniferous Species

Galina Suvorova, Michael Korzukhin, Maria Ivanova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31526

The effect of five ecological factors (incident radiation, air and soil temperature, vapour pressure deficit (D), and soil moisture) on the net CO2 photosynthesis rate was examined for three boreal tree species – Siberian larch (Larix sibirica), Sibirian spruce (Picea obovata), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) from the Baikal lake region, by means of a coupled photosynthesis–stomatal conductance model. The model was parametrized on the data obtained from 5–year long field measurements made on sun needles of three 14–19 year-old trees of each species. Pine had the greatest photosynthesis rate while spruce had the lowest one. There were 9 free model parameters in total fitted on the whole data set that gave the model efficiency ME = 0.46–0.66. For single years and three intra–year time intervals, parameter fitting was made for three key parameters only: maximum Rubisco activity, Vcmax25, maximum stomatal conductance,, and quantum efficiency of photosynthesis, φ; this procedure raised fitting quality to ME = 0.61–0.72.

Photosynthesis rate varies due to current weather conditions and also due to long-term changes in the plant itself, that is in the parameters that determine the photosynthesis rate. The change of parameter values with time probably takes place due to between– and within–year weather change. Under actual weather conditions in Pre-Baikalia, larch realises 49%, spruce – 30%, аnd pine – 36% of their maximum photosynthesis rate ability. Soil moisture significantly affected Vcmax25 for larch and spruce, while for larch it was vapour pressure deficit (D) that most affected the value of Vcmax25. The coefficient of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis, Ls, offered by Sharkey, showed that stomatal regulation is maximal for pine, and minimal for larch.