Open Access Short communication

In vitro Activity of Arbutus unedo Aqueous Extract against Leishmania infantum Promastigote

Idir Moualek, Abdelkamel Mouloua, Ghenima Iratni Aiche, Abdenassar Harrar, Nassima Achour, Celia Zerrouki, Ouerdia Mezine, Karim Houali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32556

Considered as a major public health problem, leishmaniasis incidence continues to increase due to lack of vaccine. In addition, drugs routinely used for the treatment of this disease have associated side effects. This justifies a need to develop new drug treatments. It is in this perspective that our study is inscribed.

In vitro antileishmanial activity of the aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo leaves was evaluated against promastigotes of L. infantum (MON-1/DZ/01/LIPA1227/01) by in vitro promastigote cell assay. The extract of the studied leaves showed remarkable antileishmanial in vitro activity (74% mortality at 100 µg/ml) against the promastigotes of Leishmania infantum, in a concentration dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Effect of Organic, Inorganic and Biofertilizers on Soil Microbial Activities in Rhizospheric Soil of Green Pea

Harleen Kaur, S. K. Gosal, S. S. Walia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32509

To study the effect of incorporation of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers on rhizospheric microbial population and enzyme activities at various time intervals in pea crop, the experiment was laid in randomized blocked design in triplicate with plot size of 7 ×2.5 m2 using Punjab-88 variety. Study was conducted during winter season of 2015-16 in field of Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Enumeration of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, diazotrophs, PGPR and PSB was done on Nutrient Agar medium, Glucose Yeast Extract medium, Kenknight’s medium, Jensen’s medium, King’s B medium and NBRIP medium respectively, using serial dilution spread plate technique. Activities of soil enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase, Urease and Dehydrogenase) were studied. Significantly higher total bacterial population (150 ×107 CFU g-1 of soil) and PGPR (218 ×105 CFU g-1 of soil) population was observed in treatments when there was combination of organic, inorganic and consortium biofertilizer. Actinomycetes remained unaffected with different fertilizers. Biofertilizer used in combination with FYM resulted in significantly higher population of fungi (20 ×103 CFU g-1 of soil), diazotrophs (140 ×105 CFU g-1 of soil) and PSB (80 ×104 CFU g-1 of soil). Among rhizospheric soil enzyme activities, alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in treatment with FYM +consortium biofertilizer while dehydrogenase activity was higher in treatment with inorganic fertilizer +FYM +consortium biofertilizer. Urease activity showed a variable pattern during different time intervals. Microbial activities were also affected by different stages of plant growth. Total bacterial population showed positive correlation with enzyme activities during initial stages of plant growth but showed negative correlation with urease activity during late stages of plant growth. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers resulted in improved soil microflora leading to significantly higher enzyme activities which were further enhanced by inoculation of biofertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Brassinosteroid (Brassinolide) on Seedling Traits, Morphology and Metabolism in Mungbean under Salinity Stress

Shivani Lalotra, A. Hemantaranjan, Sandeep Kumar, Ravi Kant

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32237

The experiment was conducted in stressed and non stressed condition during kharif season 2014 at Department of Plant Physiology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Mungbean seeds were treated with different concentrations of brassinolide (BL) 0.01 mM and 0.05 mM in combination with sodium chloride (NaCl) 100 mM, BL 0.05 mM alone with control. The whole experiment was done in Petriplates and pots in growth chamber and net house, and was laid out in complete randomized design. The results of experiment revealed that plant growth regulator brassinolide (BL 0.05 mM) with salinity stress increased the germination percentage by three folds, root length by two folds, shoot height by two folds, SPAD value by one fold, nitrate reductase activity by seven folds and proline content by one fold when compared with salinity stressed condition (NaCl 100 mM) in both HUM-16 and HUM-12 genotypes at 30 days after sowing (DAS). The increase in above parameters was found at par with BL 0.01 mM concentration. Stressed plants exhibited poor growth and biochemical parameters were significantly reduced. However, the follow up application of BL (0.01 mM and 0.05 mM) neutralized the damaging effects of the salinity on the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Relative Efficiency of Different Experimental Designs for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Nishu Lohmor, Mujahid Khan, Kiran Kapoor, Ramesh Kumar Tripathi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31728

The best experimental design to use in any given condition is the one which estimates the desired effects and contrasts with maximum precision or efficiency. In uniformity trial data, the treatments being considered as dummy, the relative efficiencies of various experimental designs were determined using the yield data taken from the uniformly raised sunflower crop during February 2014 to June 2014 at CCSHAU research farm, Hisar. Randomized Block Design (RBD) was found to be more effective in reducing error variation over Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Latin Square Design (LSD) was found to be more advantageous over CRD as well as RBD only when columns were considered as blocks. Split plot design was more efficient than RBD on comparison with sub plots (10.82% gain in precision) while less efficient with main plots in comparison to RBD. In case of factorial experiments, the gain in efficiency of the confounded design of order 25 increases upto 68 per cent for the 4-plots block.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnic Origin of Crime Scene Evidential Materials Determination in Three Main Ethno-linguistic Population Groups in Nigeria

B. U. Agbo, O. A. T. Ebuehi, A. A. Osuntoki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32783

DNA analysis using autosomal short tandem repeat (microsatellite) polymorphism is a useful tool for forensic purposes, such as individual identification, stain analysis and paternity testing. Analyses of such materials are carried out by the comparison of profiles from questioned samples or crime scene with those from suspects or victims or from database. In some instances, the profiles generated will neither match that from suspects nor the database. The objective of the current study is to identify population specific markers that will show distinct genetic variability among the three main ethno-linguistic population groups in Nigeria. The profiles generated can be used to infer ethnic origin of test samples from the populations in an ethnically blinded test.

Allele frequencies for each ethnic group from 315 unrelated individuals representing the three populations; Ibo, Hausa and Yoruba were generated using 15 Microsatellite loci (STRs) from Applied Biosystems. Multi-locus genotype frequencies were utilized for testing conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Chi-square goodness of fit showed seven loci to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. However after Bonferoni correction all loci were found to be in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

The allele frequencies generated for each population were tested in the determination of ethnic origin of twenty test samples randomly collected in an ethnically blinded test. The ethnic origins of the twenty samples were correctly determined with 99.5% success, by using the principle that the ratio of profile frequencies for the same profile in different ethnic groups is a likelihood ratio.