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Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidative Enzyme Responses against Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris) in Chickpea Genotypes

U. S. Dalvi, R. M. Naik, A. A. Kale

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32888

Three wilt resistant chickpea genotypes viz., JG 24, BCP-2010-1 and GJG 0919 confirmed by field screening and also by activity profile of defense related enzymes were screened in normal and wilt sick soil for antioxidative enzymes at pre and post infection stages along with four wilt resistant and three wilt susceptible checks. The evaluation of antioxidative enzyme profile in normal and wilt sick soil of these chickpea genotypes exhibited a differential response. The activity of three antioxidative enzymes viz., APX (ascorbate peroxidase), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in wilt susceptible checks viz., JG 62, Vikas and at post infection stage. The non compatible interaction between wilt resistant genotype and pathogen demonstrated lesser increase. At preinfection stage mean APX activity did not vary significantly from normal soil to wilt sick soil, however significant increase was observed at post infection stage with 1.08 µmoles ascorbate oxidized mg-1 protein min-1 in normal soil to 1.75 µmoles ascorbate oxidized mg-1 protein min-1 in wilt sick soil. At the post infection stage the root APX activity increased significantly in wilt susceptible group of genotypes from 2.07 to 2.38 µmoles ascorbate oxidized mg-1 protein min-1 with mean percent increase of 97.94%. Though APX activity increased at post infection stage in wilt sick soil in the wilt resistant genotypes percent increase was from 33.03 to 57.64 with a mean percent increase of 40.4%. Same trend was recorded in GPX and SOD activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Bovine Alpha-tocopherol Transfer Protein (α-TTP)

Yoshitomo Taguchi, Mari Komatsu-Tanaka, Norie Hirose, Yurie Kaji, Kazuhiro Saeki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33400

Aims: To understand the mechanisms by which cattle circulate and accumulate vitamin E, we cloned the cDNA for bovine α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) and examined its expression in different tissues. 

Methodology: A full length α-TTP cDNA was amplified from bovine liver by RT-PCR.  Poly (A)+ RNA obtained from bovine tissues was subjected to RT-PCR analysis to examine α-TTP mRNA expression.  Western blot analysis was performed using polyclonal antibody raised against an oligopeptide derived from bovine α-TTP to examine α-TTP protein expression in various bovine tissues.  The localization of α-TTP in bovine lung tissue was examined by immunostaining with anti-bovine α-TTP polyclonal antibody.

Results: The open reading frame consists of 846 nucleotides encoding 282 amino acids with 98% and 83% identities to sheep and rat orthologs, respectively.  Bovine α-TTP mRNA and protein were expressed most strongly in liver and lung, whereas expression of α-TTP mRNA and protein are reported to be very weak or absent in human and rodent lungs.  In the lung, immunostaining suggested that α-TTP is expressed specifically in alveolar walls, which consists of alveolar cells, epithelial cells of small bronchi, and endothelial cells of pulmonary blood vessels. 

Conclusion: These results suggest that, in the lung, α-TTP is involved in supplying vitamin E to alveolar surfactant in order to protect the lung tissue from oxidative stress, and that this role may be more important in bovines than in other mammals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Morphological Characteristics and Production of Seeds Weeds of Species of Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferous) in Setifian High Plateau, Algeria

Meriem Hani, Rafika Lebazda, Mohamed Fenni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33473

Aims: The study of production and morphological characteristics of seeds allows identifying the different seeds mixed with cultivated plant; it also allows knowing the various species of weeds in fields. So such studies help to develop different strategies to control weeds.

Methodology: The work on the identification starts by collecting seeds from fields then study it thoroughly in the laboratory where researchers often observe it by naked eyes, in addition to the reliance on references and researches concerning describing seeds to make the study effective and successful it must be conducted carefully with continual vigilance because of the smallness of some seeds so we use magnifying glass, the optical microscope  and pocket lamp to see the different external parts of seeds.

Results: Generally, members of the species Brassicaceae have small seeds with mostly less than 4 mm long. Seeds can have appendages or not. The seed shape among the investigated species showed wide range of variations. Most of the seeds vary from globose to oblong or oval. The largest seed size is 2.8-3.5 x 0.7-1.1 mm in oval and globose seeds. Seed surface may be smooth, glabrous, or rough that can be useful for identifying species.The seed colour varies from dark reddish,brown to golden red-brown, reddish-brown to dark brown,yellow dark to brown,yellow,shiny brown,Brown dark to black,range-rown, red-brown, grey, black. The production of seeds varies depending on the culture in which the weed grows. Seed production was determined for 10 weed species of Brassicaceae. Studies on seed production potential in Capsella bursa-pastoris, Conringia orientalis, Diplotaxis erucoides and Diplotaxis virgata showed that each plant produces an average of 2500±480, 7800±627, 2200±308 and 3600±48 seeds respectively. Hirschfeldia incana produces  14000±279 seeds /plant whereas Neslia paniculata produces 1540±526 seeds/Plant. One isolated Sinapis arvensis plant can produce over 1200±398 seeds. Thus Rapistrum rugosum produced 280±17 seeds per plant.

Conclusion: Seeds morphological description is related to external description of seed, weeds seeds show very big differences as well as seeds of the same species which also can show many morphological differences. The ability to produce seeds with different degrees of dormancy is, most probably, a mechanism by which species of Brassicaceae as other weed species adapts to new environmental situations and ensures its survival by facilitating the dispersal of its seeds in time and space.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Auxins on Rooting of Rosemary, Sage and Elderberry

Liljana Koleva Gudeva, Fidanka Trajkova, Ljupco Mihajlov, Julijana Troicki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33162

Aims: The aim of research is to examine the influence of auxins IAA, IBA, NAA and commercial rooting product on rooting of cuttings from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinialis L.), sage (Salvia officinialis L.) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra L).

Study Design: Completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a plastic tunnel with three beds in Stip, Republic of Macedonia, between October 2012 and January 2013.

Methodology: Fifty cuttings from each experimental species (Rosmarinus officinialis L., Salvia officinialis and Sambucus nigra L.), with height of 15 cm, were treated with freshly made solutions of different auxin and planted for rooting in the rooting beds. After 100 days of planting we measure: height of cuttings, number of rooted cuttings, number of roots, root length and rooting percentage.

Results: The conducted research shows that growth regulators applied during the experiment, including the commercial rooting product, positively influenced rooting process of vegetative cuttings of rosemary and sage. Application of auxins as IAA, IBA and NAA in concentration of only 5 ppm have stimulating effect on rooting of the rosemary (IBA – 92%), sage (IBA – 54%; NAA – 50%) and elderberry cuttings (K1 and IAA – 14%).

Conclusion: This study is first report for application of auxins on rosemary, sage and elderberry cuttings collected from local populations in Republic of Macedonia. Application of auxins in concentrations of 5 ppm positively affected rosemary, sage and elderberry. The results presented in this paper show that the vegetative propagation of medicinal and aromatic species might be stimulated by auxins utilization even in very low concentrations. It should be noted that further research should be extended to more medicinal and aromatic plants with significant economic importance as well as with application of several higher concentration of auxins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Specific Activity of Cs-137 in Milk of Semey Region of East Kazakhstan Area

Aitbek Kakimov, Irina Smirnova, Yerlan Zharykbasov, Zhainagul Kakimova, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, Gulmira Mirasheva, Malika Baybalinova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33391

Cesium-137 (Cs-137) activity concentration in cow milk samples, collected near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan were measured. Milk samples were obtained from 7 different locations within 2 administrative regions (Abai and Ayaguz). Abai and Ayaguz regions belong to different zones of radiation risk: zone of maximum radiation risk and zone of heightened radiation risk, respectively. Radionuclide activities concentrations were determined using a gamma-ray spectrometer with pure germanium detector. The highest activity concentration values in milk were found in Karaul of Abai region 8.60±0.16 Bq/l. In Zhidebai, Kaskabulak, Kokbai and Medeu the Cs-137 activity concentration were 5.30±0.21 Bq/l, 4.10±0.12 Bq/l, 7.10±0.22 Bq/l and 3.70±0.14 Bq/l, respectively. In Ayaguz region the average value was 3.60 Bq/L. In this zone, the highest activity concentration was measured in Akshatau 6.60±0.27 Bq/l. In Ayaguz Cs-137 content was lower 2.60±0.09 Bq/l.