Open Access Minireview Article

Brief Review - Emerging Cardiac Biomarkers as Screening Tool for Atherosclerosis

Sharique Ahmed, Fadheela S. Alawi, Mohammed Abbas, Naeem Anwar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33511

Apart from the use of cardiac biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring Acute ischemic disease, an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and Heart failure, the same biomarkers can also be used for predicting the chances of suffering from these diseases in future. In a way these can be used as screening biomarkers. Since the biomarkers, which are intracellular biomolecules, are released in to the peripheral circulation from necrosis of myocytes. Lipids and lipoproteins do have high value in assessing the risk of future cardiac disease, but are not produced by the heart and don't directly reflect the status of the heart, rather they simply provide a measurement of future risk of atherosclerosis. Cardiac biomarkers on the other hand can also provide or help in assesing the extent of damage that has been caused to the myocardium because of their specificity and rapid release or increase in the peripheral blood post injury to the myocardium, as well as their presence in plasma in low concentrations normally. Hence other than the classic cardiovascular risk markers like LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides, presence in abnormal amounts of the emerging markers like apolipoprotein A1/apolipoprotein B100, Lp(a), oxidized LDL, LpPLA2, hsCRP, homocysteine, myeloperoxidase and as well as lipoprotein particle size and concentration can indicate, as well as predict  myocardial stress more accurately. The probability of developing a cardiac disease is higher if a particular risk marker is in abnormal amounts. This, in no way means that the individual is certain to develop cardiac disease but is most likely to get the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of IgA Anti-S mutans Serotype c and e in ECC Patients and Its Correlation towards Saliva Viscosity and DMFT Score

Endang W. Bachtiar, Anggrina Wulansari, Stifan Jamin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33451

Aims: To analyze Immunoglobulin A anti-S mutans serotype c and e level and the correlation towards saliva viscosity and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score of Early Childhood caries (ECC) patients.

Study Design: Titer of IgA was measured from saliva samples of ECC patients using ELISA methods. 

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Oral Biology Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta 10430 Indonesia. September-December 2016.

Methodology: Titer of IgA anti-S mutans serotype c and e and the correlation between IgA titer and saliva’s viscosity as well as DMFT score were analyzed.

Results: The titer of IgA anti-S mutans serotype c and e were 6 and 15.1, the Mann-Whitney test showed P<0.05. Levels of IgA anti-S mutans serotype c and e were in line with the saliva’s viscosity in which increasing viscosity resulted in higher level of IgA titer. Further regression analysis reveals that the titer of IgA with high viscosity of saliva contain higher titer of IgA anti-S mutans compare those lower viscosity. In addition, the data shows that DMFT score have a negative correlation with IgA anti-S mutans serotype c and e levels.

Conclusion: In ECC patients, S mutans serotype e may be more immunogenic than serotype c and higher salivary viscosity may be due to its high IgA content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aggregative Activity of Basic Regular Blood Elements and Vascular Disaggregating Control over It in Calves of Milk-vegetable Nutrition

T. I. Glagoleva, S. Yu. Zavalishina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33767

Estimation of ontogenetic peculiarities of aggregation of regular blood elements and vascular control over it, including calves in the middle of early ontogenesis - in the phase of milk-vegetable nutrition, is of great scientific and practical interest. Clarification of their physiological balance is really significant for receiving the possibility of regulation of hemostasis activity and metabolism intensity in tissues. To estimate aggregative activity of regular blood elements and disaggregating vessels' control over them in calves during the phase of milk vegetable nutrition. We formed a group of calves of black-many- colored breed which were examined 5 times at the age between the 31st and the 90th days of life with the application of biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. Farm "Kolos" of Fatezh district, Kursk region, Russia, spring 2014. The work was conducted with the help of 41 calves of black many-colored breed taken into investigation on the 31st day of life. Examination was conducted on the 31st, 45th, 60th, 75th and 90th days of calves' lives. We estimated the intensity of lipids' peroxidation in plasma, aggregation of erythrocytes, platelets and neutrophils in plasma received without application of a cuff on a vessel and with its usage. The calves of 45 days of life were noted to have short-period increase of summary erythrocytes' quantity in aggregate (on 15.9%) and aggregates' quantity (on 13.4%) at decrease of free erythrocytes (on 9.7%). Given indices returned in calves to the initial level by the 90th day of life. In plasma after temporary venous occlusion in calves by the 45th day of life summary erythrocytes' quantity in aggregates (on 21.7%) and aggregates' number (on 16.3%) had a short-term increase at decrease of free erythrocytes on 13.9%. By the 45th day of life their time of platelets' aggregation development with collagen shortened to 22.5±0.12s returning by the end of investigation to the initial level. In plasma after temporary venous occlusion we found peak acceleration of platelets' aggregation by the 45th day of life. The calves of 45days of life were noted to have strengthening of neutrophils' aggregation with lectin on 10.1%, concanavalin A - on 9,4%, phytohemagglutinin – on 19.1% eliminated by the 90th day of life. Found in calves of 45 days of life short-period strengthening of formular blood elements' aggregation was combined with brief weakening of their deaggregating vascular activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathogenic Microbes from Unprotected Landfills Pose Health Hazards with Potentials of Disease Outbreaks in Nigeria

Eucharia Ezenwanyi Nmema

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32766

Aims: This study assessed some health hazards associated with landfills and waste dumping by comparing pathogenic microbes from Olusosun Landfill and a control field in Lagos, Nigeria.

Study Design: A comparative, investigative survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology Laboratory, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos, between August 2015 and February 2016.  

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from the superficial layers (1-20 cm) of alfisol at the landfill and a field located about 1000 meters from the dumpsite. Coliform counts, identification of bacteria and susceptibility to antibiotics were carried out.  One-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis, with level of significance at 0.05.

Results: Coliform counts were 51×105 and 38 ×105 CFU g-1 dry soil for landfill soil and field soils respectively. Species of Gram-negative bacteria (16) and Gram-positive bacteria (20) found in landfill soil outnumbered Gram-negative bacteria (7) and Gram-positive bacteria (10) found in field soil. potential pathogenic species isolated from landfill soil were Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, outnumbering pathogenic species in field soil. 56.3% of Gram-negative bacteria and 55.0% of Gram-positive bacteria from landfill soil gave Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index above 0.5. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between the MAR Index of Gram-negative bacteria in landfill and field soils, but no significant differences (P = 0.6348) between Gram-positive bacteria in landfill and field soils.

Conclusion: The findings reveal that pathogenic species of bacteria inhabiting landfill soil are more diverse and numerous than in field soil. The presence of coliforms in landfill soil is an indication of faecal contamination. This implies that the presence of landfills, though needful, poses health hazards which cannot be overlooked. The author emphasises the importance of sterilizing waste before dumping, citing landfills far from residential areas, water bodies and farms, as well as provision of potable water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidative Effects of Flavonoids-rich Extract of Cymbopogon citratus in Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2) Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

O. T. Adedosu, G. E. Adeleke, J. A. Badmus, I. A. Ojeleye, A. H. Fatoberu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33133

Aims: Environmental exposure to radical generating agents from foods, drugs and cosmetics is a major concern in diseases associated with oxidative stress using natural products. This study investigated the effects of flavonoids-rich extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on oxidative and inflammatory markers in sodium nitrite exposed rats.

Study Design: Twenty four male Wistar rats averagely weighing 175 g used for this study were   treated for one week, randomly selected into four groups, A-D. Group A (Control), Group B (Sodium nitrite only, 80 mg/kg.bw), Group C (treated extract at 100 mg/kg.bw. and intoxicated with sodium nitrite, 80 mg/kg.bw) and Group D (extract only, 100 mg/kg.bw).

Methodology: Serum and liver total protein (TP) concentrations, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and  Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities,     White blood cell count (WBC), C-Reactive protein (CRP) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),were determined using  international standardized methods.

Results: Results showed that Sodium nitrite significantly (P = .05) decreases liver total protein concentrations, GSH levels, CAT and SOD activities with corresponding significant (P=.05) increases in serum total proteins, WBC count, TNF-α, CRP and MDA levels. However, extract alone (group D) elicited significant (P=.05) increases in serum  protein, WBC count, GSH level, CAT and SOD activities and significant decreases in serum TP,TNF-α, CRP, and MDA levels. Interestingly, the combined treatment (group C) showed similar trends with extracts as the parameters were significantly reversed to their control levels compared with group A and B.

Conclusion: Results are indicative of the toxic effects of sodium nitrite, its potential to induced apoptosis by up regulation of TNF-α and extract ability to boost anti-oxidant status, elicits  modulatory, anti–inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects suggestive of its rich-flavonoids and  medicinal values in preventing diseases associated with environmental toxins.