Open Access Minireview Article

Analysis on Local Food and Agrochemical Concept

Noraniza Yusoff

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33986

Aims: To distinguish between the defining attributes of local food and agrochemical concept as well as its irrelevant structure.

Study Design: Wilson concept analysis consists of comparison of data units abstracted through selective literature and website review.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: articles and website available on the internet, from 2016 until 2017.

Methodology: Sample: We included 14 sources, including articles and website. Analysis employed in this research consists of determine differences of attributes and internal structure; contrary cases is an instance that is absolutely sure not an example; a related case is close to model case; an invented case is if concept is rare or is very familiar; social context that is related to culture; and a practical result that is implications to make a difference in live.

Results: Local food idea contrast from halal food idea. Meanwhile, agrochemical refers to monoculture present in rural regions that produce several things. Whereas, paddy in 1970-1980 reached around 87 percent of the national demand the result of state strategy that stressed greater food self-sufficiency by growing harvest.

Conclusion: Concept of local food differs with other concepts in food aspects. Meanwhile, agrochemical different with several fertilizers’ concepts. A recommendation for further research is focus on the local food and agrochemicals with respect to improved agricultural seed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photochemical oxidation of γ-exachlorocyclohexane and 4,4’- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene

Irina Zykova, Maksim Rebezov, Nikolai Maksimiuk, Irina Donnik, Natalya Kuramshina, Olga Loretts, Eleonora Okuskhanova, Irina Dolmatova, Tatiana Zaitseva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33754

Objectives: Utilization of the forbidden organochlorine pesticides demands searching of new ways of their neutralization. In such way there can be a photochemical oxidation of pesticides. As a research objects we chose γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) and 4,4 '- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). Radiation treatment of solution is carried out by the UF-lamp with a wavelength of 254 nanometers.

Methods: Residual concentrations of pesticides were determined by "Lyumakhrom" liquid chromatograph. The infrared spectrum of initial lindane, DDE solutions in the process of photochemical oxidation of pesticides by hydrogen peroxide is observed in ZnSe precision cell by Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy "Infralyum of FT-02". The kinetics of photochemical oxidation process of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) and 4,4 '- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) is studied.

Findings: The analysis of obtained results shows that use of the homogeneous catalysts, initiating the process of H2O2 and H2O photolysis, reduces the concentration of lindane and DDE in the first hour of treatment. Without catalyst the residual concentration of lindane is 0,289×10-6 mol/dm3, DDE – 0,235×10-6mol/dm3, while addition of iron (III) to H2O2 leads lindane concentration dilution up to 0,029×10-6 mol/dm3, DDE – to 0,046×10-6 mol/dm3. Addition as the Zn (II) catalyst to hydrogen peroxide decreases the concentration of lindane to 0,129×10-6 mol/dm3, DDE – to 0,163×10-6 mol/dm3 in 2 hours. In the presence of iron ions (III) as the homogeneous catalyst initiating the photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and water, the constant rates are increased by six times. The analysis of pesticides photochemical oxidation products by IR spectrums allowed assuming mechanisms of photochemical oxidation of pesticides by hydrogen peroxide. As may be supposed, there is a cycle rupturing in lindane leading to formation of the aliphatic ketones which are restored to secondary alcohols; and DDE have a rupture of C (1) atom benzene ring with formation of chlorophenols and alkenes. From then on chlorophenols are oxidized by hydroxyl radical to the carbon dioxide and water, and alkenes are hydrated to primary alcohols.

Conclusion: The conducted research showed high efficiency of photochemical oxidation process of pesticides in the presence of homogeneous catalyst – iron ions (III).

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) of Some 1,ω-bis[4-Carboxy/Methoxycarbonyl/(Hydrazinecarbonyl)/Phenoxy]Alkanes

Nasser S. A. M. Khalil, Noha M. Mohamed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33990

A series of some 1,ω-bis[4-carboxy/methoxycarbonyl/(hydrazinecarbonyl)/phenoxy]alkanes were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against different strains of Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis RCMB 101-001  and Staphylococcus aureus RCMB 106-001 (1)), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa RCMB 102-002 and Escherichia coli RCMB 103-001), yeast (Candida albicansRCMB 005003) and fungi (Aspergillus fumigates RCMB 002008 (1), Penicillium italicum RCMB 001018 (1) and Syncephalastrum racemosum RCMB 016001). The screening results revealed that all the tested compounds exhibited different inhibitory effects against different organisms. Thus, compounds 1, 4, exhibited inhibitory effects against all the test organisms, compounds 5, 7 exhibited inhibitory effects against seven of total eight test organisms, compound 2 exhibited inhibitory effect against six of total eight test organisms. Some tested compounds, at specific concentrations, showed the same or higher inhibitory effects against some test organisms, compared to standard antimicrobial agents, at the same concentrations. Thus, while compound 1 gave the same inhibitory effect against Aspergillus fumigatus RCMB 002008 (1) (at concentrations 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) as Tebinafine (standard antifungal agent), it showed much higher inhibitory effect against Syncephalastrum racemosum RCMB 016001 (at concentrations 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) and Candida albicans RCMB 005003 (at concentrations 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL). Compound 7, also, compared to Terbinafine, while revealed the same inhibitory effect, against Penicillium italicum RCMB 001018 (1) (at concentrations 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL), it revealed higher inhibitory effect against Aspergillus fumigatus RCMB 002008 (1) (at concentration 5.0 mg/mL), Syncephalastrum racemosum RCMB 016001 (at concentration 2.5 mg/mL) and Candida albicans RCMB 005003 (at concentration 5.0 mg/mL). Compared to the standard antibacterial Chloramphenicol, compound 7 revealed the same inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus RCMB 106-001 (1) (at concentrations 1.0, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL) and Escherichia coli RCMB 103-001 (at concentrations 1.0, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL).The structure-activity relationship was investigated via studying the effect of the aliphatic spacer length between the two ethereal oxygen atoms as well as the effect of functional group attached to the two carbonyl groups (hydroxy/methoxy/hydrazine) on the inhibitory effect of the titled compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Generation from Co-digestion of Four Substrates; Water Hyacinth, Cassava Peels, Poultry Droppings and Cow Dung

Asikong Ernest B. Etta, Epoke James, Ayade Ben, Dominic Reuben Tiku

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/29459

Generation of biogas by a combination of four substrates of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), cassava (Manihot esculentum) peels, poultry droppings and cow dung was investigated using anaerobic digester and gasometric chamber to determine the level of production. Total viable bacterial counts in the combination were 7.86 X107, 5.45 X105 cfuml-1 before and after digestion respectively while fungal counts were 2.45 x102, 3.35 X104 cfuml-1 before and after digestion respectively. The combination of the four substrates, yielded biogas of 815 mls, 875 ml and 1340 mls from respective weights of 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg within 15 days without starter culture while with starter culture biogas yield within 15 days was 840 mls 1170 mls and 1690 mls from the 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg weights respectively. Total biogas yield obtained without starter culture was 4355 mls, 5325 mls and 6700 mls from the 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg weights respectively and 4865 mls, 5935 mls and 7822 mls within 45 days with starter culture. Results, show that biogas volume vary significantly, [F(2, 16) = 14.93, P < 0.001] with and [F(2, 16) = 19.42, P < 0.001] without starter culture at the 1% level of significance due to weights. There was also significant difference [F(2,16) =16.45, P<0.001] with starter culture and [F(2,16)=25.05, P<0.001] without starter culture. Positive correlation was observed in biogas production with and without starter culture. There was evidence of synergy in the consortium of waste for biogas generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

3D Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Microtissues Grown in Calcium Alginate Microbeads

Soon Chuan Wong, Chin Fhong Soon, Kian Sek Tee, Wai Yean Leong, Mohd Khairul Ahmad, Sok Ching Cheong

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33526

3D microtissue models, especially cancer microtissue model, are potentially applicable for new drug testing because 3D microtissue reveals more realistic drug response, characterizes the disease and mimics the tumor in human body. In this paper, we report the integration of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (ORL-48) into 3D microtissue after two weeks of microencapsulation in calcium alginate microbeads that were produced based on the flicking technique. The microtissues contained highly proliferative cells as indicated by Alamar blue assay. The viable microtissues formed were extracted from the calcium alginate shell by means of alginate lyase. As revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), the extracted 3D microtissues were characterized by inhomogeneous microtissue surface but good cell integrity via self-secreted extracellular matrix proteins. DAPI staining showed the proliferative behavior of cells in multilayer structure. These microtissues were able to spread into 2D monolayer after being transferred to grow on petri dishes. The 3D cultured microtissues of ORL-48 could be potentially useful for cancer therapeutic drug assessment in-vitro.