Open Access Original Research Article

In Vivo Screening for Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Syngonium podophyllum L.: A Remarkable Herbal Medicine

Md. Sarwar Hossain, Md. Sahab Uddin, Md. Tanvir Kabir, Shammi Akhter, Srijan Goswami, Abdullah Al Mamun, Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Md. Asaduzzaman, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35692

Aims: Algesia and inflammation are strongly connected with several pathological conditions. Searching for natural healing agents with a better safety profile for the treatment of these conditions are ongoing due to multiple unwanted effects associated with synthetic pharmaceuticals. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyse the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the Syngonium podophyllum (S. podophyllum) L. leaves.

Study Design: The fresh leaves of S. podophyllum L. were extracted with methanol (CME) followed by fractionation using n-hexane (NHF), chloroform (CLF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (AQF).  Then analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of crude extract and its fractions were determined using standard methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January to April 2017.

Methodology: Tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing tests were used for the determination of analgesic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was determined by carrageenan induced paw edema test.

Results: Among the plant extract and its fractions, CME showed significantly higher (60.53%, P < 0.001) analgesic activity in the tail immersion test. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, CME also showed marked inhibition (59.58%, P < 0.01) of algesia with respect to remaining fractions. CME demonstrated significant (71.11%, P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory effect than the other fractions in carrageenan induced paw edema test.

Conclusion: The denouements of this study showed that the crude extracts of the S. podophyllum L.  leaf have an effective analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities and thereby possess an excellent source of natural agents which could be developed in the treatment of diseases related to algesia and inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Report on Colletotrichum acutatum of Olives in Morocco

Soukaina Msairi, Mohamed Chliyeh, Youssef Rhimini, Karima Selmaoui, Afifa Mouria, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Rachid Benkirane, Allal Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35341

Anthracnose is an important disease affecting the yield and quality of olive production (olives, olive oil). Symptoms of anthracnose, circular soft decayed spots were observed on olives in the region of Ouazzane (North of Morocco) and Sefrou (Middle Atlas). The isolation of fungi from these olives has shown the presence of several fungal species, cases of Colletotrichum sp. (58%), Alternaria alternata (23%) and Aspergillus niger (12%) and other species (7%) respectively. Microscopic observations based on morphological criteria made it possible to note that the Colletotrichum genus is represented by two species: Colletotrichum glosporoides and Colletotrichum acutatum. The Koch’s postulate was applied to study the pathogenicity of this last species encountered for the first time in Morocco. The olives inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum showed circular decayed spots on which viscous masses of orange spores were developed. After five days of inoculation by mycelial cuttings of C. acutatum, the diameter of the spots was 1.866 cm in injured inoculated olives and 0.283 cm in not injured olives, in the case of inoculation by spraying a spore suspension, the olives were completely decayed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Erythrocytes’ Microrheological Features of Piglets during the Phase of Dairy-vegetable Nutrition after Damage or Common Supercooling

V. I. Maksimov, A. V. Parakhnevich, A. А. Parakhnevich, T. I. Glagoleva, N. V. Kutafina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35864

Notwithstanding the great successes of biology and veterinary science, possible changes of cytoarchitecture and erythrocytes’ aggregation in piglets during the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition after unfavorable environmental impacts haven’t been studied yet. The aim of the research: to find out peculiarities of erythrocytes’ microrheological features in piglets during the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition after damage or common supercooling. We observed piglets during the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition after casual unfavorable environmental impact: 28 animals with arthritis after some joint damage and 23 piglets with bronchitis after common supercooling. Control group was composed of 39 healthy piglets of the same age. We estimated the activity of lipids’ peroxidation, indices of plasma and erythrocytes’ antioxidant protection, condition of cytoarchitecture and erythrocytes’ aggregation. Statistical processing was conducted by Student’s t-criterion. We found similar intensity increase of lipids’ peroxidation in blood plasma and erythrocytes of observed piglets after unfavorable impacts (about 66.7% for arthritis and about 68.9% for bronchitis) against the background of comparable weakening of their antioxidant protectability (in both groups for catalase on approximately 25.0%, for superoxide dismutase on approximately 11.0%). There was quantity increase of erythrocytes’ changed forms (reversibly changed forms on approximately 50.0%, irreversibly changed forms approximately in 2 times) in these piglets and strengthening of their spontaneous aggregation (number increase of erythrocytes’ aggregates in blood of animals in both states on more than 20.0%). In our research it was shown that piglets during the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition after negative environmental impacts experienced worsening of erythrocytes’ microrheological features. Its evidence didn’t depend on the character of the influencing factor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Citric Acid Production and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Green Tea Beverage during Production and Storage

Fereshteh Ansari, Hadi Pourjafar, Sahel Esmailpour

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35664

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of citric acid production and antibacterial activity of Kombucha green tea during its production and storage.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, between December 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: The amount of citric acid at two temperatures of 20°C and 30°C was determined using the HPLC technique during 21 days. To survey the antibacterial effect of Kombucha on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteria, two processes of well and the disc were used.

Results: Production of citric acid undergone a change at 20°C from 5.92 on day 1 to approximately 31.75 on day 21, and this difference was significant. Additionally, the amount of this organic acid at 30°C changed from 5.57 on day 1 to 15.43 on day 21. The amount of citric acid produced during storage at 20°C was significantly greater than that at 30°C (p<0.05). 

In the well method, for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium at both temperatures of 20°C and 30°C, the diameter of the formed halo between different days was significantly different (p<0.05). In the disc method, for Staphylococcus aureus at 20°C and 30°C the halo diameter in all experimental days were significantly greater (p<0.05) than day 1. For Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteria, no halo was formed around the discs and wells.

Conclusion: By time increase, the pH decreased the amount of citric acid increased, and the halo diameter around the well and disk (in all positive cases) increased.

Open Access Review Article

Control of Glossina spp (Diptera: Glossinidae) by Pathogenic Organisms and their by Products

S. N. Okiwelu, M. A. E. Noutcha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33906

Tsetse flies Glossina spp (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the dominant vectors of trypanosomes, causative organisms of human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT) on the African continent. Prior to 1950, destruction of tsetse habitats and wildlife elimination were the main control methods. The advent of chlorinated hydrocarbons led to emphasis on the use of insecticides. Problems of adverse environmental effects on non-target organisms, resistance, etc culminated in an integrated approach. In spite of these efforts, HAT and AAT are still major problems on the continent. Hence the search for new approaches; this period coincided with the emergence of the new discipline of invertebrate pathology. Microbial control agents started to feature in biocontrol of medically important insects. Two eras were discernable: Pre-1960 and Post-1960. There were with two decades, 1939-1959 of reduced activity. In the first era, the emphasis was on field records of pathogenic organisms associated with Glossina from West, Central, East and Southern Africa. Surprisingly, there were no records of viruses or rickettsia. Post-1960, laboratory and field studies intensified with fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and rickettsia. Enhanced knowledge of microbial genetics and cellular physiology led to the paratransgenic strategy of transforming the primary intercellular obligate Wigglesworthia glossinidia and the secondary commensal Sodalis glossinidius symbionts to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. The article concludes with a positive note on the prospects of microbial control of Glossina spp. within an integrated pest management programme.