Open Access Original Research Article

Platelets’ Aggregative Properties of Ireshire Calves in the Phase of Dairy-vegetable Nutrition

Ju. L. Oshurkova, I. N. Medvedev, L. L. Fomina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35868

The aim of research is to determine the dynamics of platelets’ ability to aggregation in healthy Ireshire calves during the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition. We examined 67 Ireshire calves of dairy-vegetable nutrition. We applied hematological and statistical methods of investigation in our research. At the age of 45 days the animals had short-time strengthening of aggregation in response to all the applied inductors. This strengthening of platelets’ aggregation in calves was removed by the 3rd month of their life. They had the most active platelets’ aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate. Platelets’ aggregation with collagen and ristomicin was less evident in them. Ireshire calves had strengthening of disaggregating platelets’ capabilities in response to all the applied inductors of aggregation by the 45th day of life. But its evidence returned to the initial level by the end of observation. In the course of our research we determined the dynamics of indices of platelet hemostasis in Ireshire calves in the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition. Short-time strengthening of platelets’ activity in calves of this breed at the beginning of observation has in its basis the processes of adaptation to changing of nutrition character.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rheological Properties of Erythrocytes of Healthy Piglets during the Transition from Dairy to Vegetable Nutrition

V. I. Maksimov, A. V. Parakhnevich, A. А. Parakhnevich, T. I. Glagoleva, N. V. Kutafina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35865

In the course of ontogenesis mammals can experience some changes of regular elements’ micro rheological peculiarities. These changes can influence blood rheological properties in capillaries and, so, the degree of tissues’ perfusion. The aim: to determine erythrocytes’ micro rheological properties in healthy piglets of dairy-vegetable nutrition. The study used 39 healthy piglets of the breed “Large-White”. They were examined on the 21st, 25th, 30th and 40th days of life. All the piglets were kept in the pig complex “Verdazernoprodukt” in Ryazan region, Russia. We evaluated in animals the activity of lipid peroxidation in plasma and erythrocytes in terms of the number of acylhydroperoxides and malon dialdehyde in them. The content of cholesterol and total phospholipids in erythrocytes was determined. In erythrocytes the surface properties of their membranes and aggregation activity were evaluated. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted by Student’s t-criterion. Against the background of strengthening of erythrocytes’ antioxidant protection we noticed lowering of acylhydroperoxides’ quantity on 13.2% and the level of malon dialdehyde – on 19.5% in erythrocytes of piglets. During the phase of dairy-vegetable nutrition the piglets were registered to have lowering of erythrocytes-discocytes till 83.3±0.09% at little rise of the level of reversibly and irreversibly changed erythrocytes. In the course of the experiment the piglets had increase of summary level of erythrocytes’ involvement into aggregates on 20.5% and quantity rise of the aggregates themselves on 22.7% at lowering of free erythrocytes’ number on 8.6%. Thus, piglets of dairy-vegetable nutrition are characterized by optimum of the processes of lipids’ peroxidation in platelets. It is accompanied by some rise of erythrocyte aggregation and quantity increase of reversibly and irreversibly changed erythrocytes in blood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Essential Minerals from Almond Fruits of Terminalia catappa Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Douati Togba Etienne, Sidibe Daouda, Coulibaly Adama, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33033

Aims: To assess the minerals nutrients in the almonds of Terminalia catappa from Côte d'Ivoire and their daily contributions in adult people’s diet.

Study Design: The almonds of Terminalia catappa extracted from the dry fruits harvested in different regions of Ivory Coast. The concentration of the minerals was determined and their contribution to cover the requirements required in the diet.

Place and Duration of Study: The dried fruits of Terminalia catappa were collected in the regions of tonkpi (Man and Danane) and Guemon (Duékoué) of the Côte d'Ivoire, from October to December 2015.

Methodology: The dry fruits of Terminalia catappa were opened using nutcracker. The extracted almonds were dried at 50°C for 48 h in an oven (MEMMERT, Germany). After cooling, they were crushed (Magimix Crusher) before being stored in sealed polyethylene bags and then stored in a desiccator before analysis (essential minerals content).

Results: The results show the presence of K, P, Mg, Ca, Na, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn. Potassium and phosphorus have the highest concentrations with respective contents of 1398.4±23.25 and 587.60±14.60 mg/100 g. Also, 100 g of almond samples contain 220.67±14.10 mg of magnesium, 176.80±9.71 mg of calcium, and 67.07±1.66 mg of sulfur and 32±1.74 mg of sodium. Essential trace elements concentration ranged between 0.96±0.96 mg / 100 g (Zn) and 13.60±10.74 mg/100 g (Cu). The consumption of almond by an Ivorian adult of 70 kg is 1 g/day; which provides the organism quantities of macroelements ranging between 0.320±0.01 mg/day (Na) and 13.98±0.23 mg/day (K), whereas the contributions in trace elements oscillate between 0,01±0.00 mg/day (Zn) and 0,14 ±0.00 mg/day (Cu).

Conclusion: This study revealed that the almonds of Terminalia catappa are good source of essential minerals. The contribution determined from the estimated intake showed that the almonds are able to cover the essential mineral requirements required in the human diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oil-bioactive Films as an Antifungal Application to Save Post-harvest Food Crops

Mohamed Gamal Shehata, Ahmed Noah Badr, Adel Gabr Abdel-Razek, Minar Mahmoud Hassanein, Hassan Ahmed Amra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36149

Background: Agricultural wastes were rich in many components, which may considered as a source of natural and active materials. This study was targeted to apply a non-traditional method to safe grains against toxigenic fungi and its mycotoxins.

Materials and Methods: Three extracts of immature fig fruit (ImFF), fig leaves (FL), and pomegranate husks (POH) were collected, the antimicrobial and antifungal characters of the extracts were evaluated, and it was tested to reduce mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin. The toxicity of these extracts were determined using brine shrimp bioassay. Jojoba oil used as a carrier for concentrate of those extracts.  

Results and Discussion:  Total phenolic and flavonoid content for the three extracts were varied. Immature fig extract (ImFF) showed the best results either in antimicrobial or in antifungal effect, its toxicity on brine shrimp was low, also it has highly ability as aflatoxins reducing in liquid media (52.7%) followed by fig leaves extract (20%). In addition; jojoba have higher Induction period, as ImFF dissolved in jojoba, the oxidative stability of the oil turned to be the highest value comparing to oil with other two extracts. The application of biofilm coat on the soybean grain using ImFF dissolved in jojoba oil recorded as the best way to save the grains against mycotoxigenic fungi and toxin producing.

Conclusion: Agricultural wastes could be one of the novel source for bioactive components, ImFF was the best extract which give the best results as an application in postharvest grain safety operation. The application of oil-extract film was a novel method saving grains against mycotoxins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developmental Anatomic Studies on the Triceps brachii and Biceps brachii Muscles in Red Sokoto Goat (Capra hircus)

S. A. Hena, A. Umar, M. L. Sonfada, A. Bello, S. M. Atabo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31763

Objectives: Triceps brachii and biceps brachii are important muscles for animal’s functionality and useful to clinicians during intramuscular drug administration. This study investigated the gross, morphometric and histological developmental pattern of these muscles.

Methods: In this study nine wasted goat fetuses obtained at different trimesters, and three adult goat forelimbs making a total number of twelve animals were used, the study comprised of both male and female subjects, although sexual dimorphism was not considered. The triceps brachii and biceps brachii muscles were dissected out and gross, morphometric and histological evaluations were done.

Results: At the first trimester the two muscles were grossly observed to be small, thinner, soft and slimy on palpation. Progressive increments in muscle sizes and firmness on palpation as well as decreased slimy texture of the muscles were observed across advancement in ages from the second through the third trimester stages. At the adult stage the two muscles were larger in size, heavier and firmer on palpation. The morphometric values all showed significantly (p<0.05) increased values across chronological age advancement of the studied animals. Histologically muscle development was observed to commence by the laying down and condensation of mesenchymal cells which subsequently produced myoblast, and evidently the developing of muscle fascicles and muscle fibres, perimysial spaces and all other features of skeletal muscle were evident.

Conclusion: Knowledge on these studied muscles may not only bridge the gap on paucity of information on the developmental anatomy of these muscles, but could also find application in clinical practices.