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Open Access Minireview Article

The Relationship between Homocysteine ​​and Fragility Fractures - A Systematic Review

Alexandru Filip, Nina Filip, Bogdan Veliceasa, Cristiana Filip, Ovidiu Alexa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36176

It is known that increased levels of homocysteine in plasma ​​have been associated with various diseases. Current studies show that homocysteine ​​is a new risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Fragility fractures are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cause substantial financial loss to the patients and their families.

This mini-review provides a critical overview of currently available studies, examining the relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and fragility fractures. In conclusion more studies are needed to establish a clear relationship between homocysteine and fractures in elderly patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Contaminability between Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia mariae

Isibor Patrick Omoregie, Imoobe Tunde Ohiokhioya Thadeus

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34920

Water, Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia mariae samples were collected from four (4) stations across the length of the Osse River between the periods of April, 2013 to September, 2014. Heavy metals (Iron, manganese, nickel and lead) and total hydrocarbons in water and fish tissues (gills, intestine and muscles) were tested using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian Techron Spectr AA – 10 Model; serial number 902 1318) and Agilent 6890N Gas Chromatograph - Flame Ionization Detector instrument (Model 6890) respectively. Much higher concentrations of all the contaminants (except lead) were detected in the intestine of Clarias gariepinus than the intestine of Tilapia mariae. This can be attributed to the fact that Clarias gariepinus- a demersal fish (bottom feeder) as opposed to Tilapia mariae (pelagic fish), must have been exposed to considerably high concentrations of heavy metals and total hydrocarbons (THCs) in the bottom of the river through foraging. The sequence of heavy metals and total hydrocarbons was the same in both fish species: Fe > Mn > THC > Pb > Ni as against the sequence in water: Fe > THC > Mn > Pb > Ni. The trend of the heavy metals and total hydrocarbons among the analyzed matrices was: Clarias gariepinus > Tilapia mariae > water. Despite the health risks (mainly of iron and manganese) observed in both species, no ecological risk was observed in the aqueous phase. This can be attributed to the significant bioaccumulation factors which are functions of their thresholds of essentiality. Results showed that Clarias gariepinus posed a higher level of health risk than Tilapia mariae. Furthermore, given that manganese alone contaminated the muscle of T. mariae while iron and manganese were the contaminants in the muscle of C. gariepinus, it is safer to consume the T. mariae than the C. gariepinus; particularly during the dry season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Vascular Tissues and Productivity of Buckwheat Plants after Impulse Pressure Treatment

Elena E. Nefed’eva, Vladimir I. Lysak, Soumana Datta, Violetta A. Pavlova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33751

Osmotic pressure, pressure gradients in the phloem, and mechanical forces influence different processes in plants. We have proposed the method of pre-sowing seed treatment by impulse pressure generated by a shock wave. It is possible to use the shock wave for different precision purposes due to the excellent parameter control that determine the intensity of the influence. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench., cv. Saulyk) plants were treated by impulse pressure. The purpose of this work was to study following physiological processes, such as growth of plants, and development of phloem and xylem, which promote crop increases in buckwheat plants, treated by impulse pressure. The changes in the development of conductive tissues provided the growth of leaves and the redistribution of photosynthates to inflorescences and fruits. So, these experiments demonstrated that the total fruit weight increased at plants treated by 11 MPa, exceeding the control by 22.6%. Hence the treatment of seeds by impulse pressure provided more favorable conditions for the supply of forming fruits with photosynthates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Seksaoua Region (Western High Moroccan Atlas)

Sbai-Jouilil Hind, Fadli Anas, Zidane Lahcen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36112

This paper represents an ethnobotanical study in Seksaoua region, which aims to identify medicinal plants used by the population of this region, and to document the different therapeutic recipes used in local traditional medicine as a cure against digestive disorders.

The study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 at 30 stations using 746 survey sheets and stratified random method for sampling. Plant samples harvested from the field were identified in the laboratory and a species inventory was developed. The results obtained reported a total of 92 plant species used against digestive disorders by the population of Seksaoua. These species belong to 44 families with a dominance of Lamiaceae and include 20 species that are endemic to Morocco, such as; Pulicaria mauritanica, Thymelaea linifolia, Salvia taraxacifolia and Ononis natrix.

The present study have shown a great diversity of medicinal species used by the local population in the Occidental High Atlas. However, the applications of these medicinal plants were found to be anarchic and uncontrolled.

Open Access Review Article

Phytochemical, Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Activites of Selected Climber Plants: A Review

Muneeb M. Musthafa, A. D. E. Nastaran, Faiz M. M. T. Marikar, Davindran Rajandram, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34796

Climber plants have attracted global attention for their hidden therapeutic potential and are generally rooted on the ground, but leaves often in full sun and blanketing canopies of trees. Climbers rely on some support from other plants and have active and passive climbing mechanisms with great diversity. Tropical forests are the harbors of enormous different fauna and flora species than any other ecosystem on earth and Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in Asia with a good amount of tropical forest cover. On the other hand, Iran is an important source of Herbal plants due to the weather and geographical situation. In this review six species of Malaysian and Iranian plants (Hedera helix, Rosa canina, Vitis vinifera, Aristolochia tagala, Gynura procumbens and Antigonon leptopus) are selected and botanical description, geographical distribution, chemical constituent and medicinal properties of each species is discussed. Despite the rich ethno-medicine knowledge behind the traditional uses of climber plants, the current scientific evidence to support these claims remains scant. More research is still needed to validate the medicinal aspects, beginning by increasing the understanding of the biological actions of the climber plants.