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Open Access Original Research Article

Variability and Genetic Structure of a Natural Population of Trichoderma spp. Isolated from Different Substrates in Morocco

Wafa Khirallah, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Ghizlane Diria, Fatima Gaboun, Rachid Benkirane, Allal Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35389

Ten species of Trichoderma antagonists have been collected from different ecosystems (forest soils, compost and strawberry plants) and characterized according to their molecular tools. Molecular characterization was performed by amplifying and analyzing the sequences of the internal transcribed separator coding 1 and 4 (ITS). Trichoderma isolates were identified as Trichoderma asperellum, more than 90% similarity, except the SDLA2 strain gave Trichoderma harzianum species (The isolate SDLA2 was closely related at the nucleotide level to the China’s isolate gi|748053410|gb|KM277992.1| Trichoderma harzianum, 100% of similarity). The dissimilarity matrix based on ITS analysis showed that the Trichoderma isolates: SELM4, SMAA6, SMAA8 and SDLA27 were the less dissimilar (1.3% to 1.6%), while the isolate SDLA2 with the others isolates, except with the isolate gi|748053410|gb|KM277992.1 (1.1%) are the most dissimilar (9.9% to 16.3%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Reaction of Erythrocytes’ Micro Rheological Peculiarities in Milk Fed Piglets after the Negative Impact of the Environment

V. I. Maksimov, A. V. Parakhnevich, A. А. Parakhnevich, T. I. Glagoleva, N. V. Kutafina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35867

One of physiologically significant and vulnerable stages of productive animals’ (including pigs) ontogenesis is the phase of milk feeding. Microcirculation is very significant for the common functional welfare of a body. It is mostly determined by erythrocytes’ state. The aim of research: to determine the state of erythrocytes’ micro rheological peculiarities in milk fed piglets after the impact of the negative environmental factor – super cooling. We examined 59 milk fed piglets of the breed “Large-White” after the impact of the unfavorable environmental factor (super cooling). In the result, 32 animals had arthritis, 27 – bronchitis. Control group was composed of 32 healthy milk fed piglets. In our study we applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. We found similar intensity increase of lipids’ peroxidation in blood plasma and erythrocytes of piglets after the unfavorable environmental impact which took place in the result of comparable weakening of their antioxidant protectability. Milk fed piglets with arthritis or bronchitis were found to have worsening of erythrocytes’ micro rheological features of similar evidence: comparable quantity rise of their reversibly changed (approximately on 60%) and irreversibly changed forms (nearly in 2 times) and strengthening of erythrocytes’ ability to aggregation (increase of aggregates’ number on more than 29.0%). In case of the impact of super cooling on milk fed piglets, regardless of developing later arthritis or bronchitis, we noticed similar activation of lipids’ peroxidation at comparable weakening of antioxidant protectability of plasma and erythrocytes. It was accompanied by comparable quantity rise of erythrocytes’ changed forms in their blood and comparable growth of their ability to aggregation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Bio-fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Anthocyanin Content of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Plant under Taif Region Conditions

A. A. Kahil, F. A. S. Hassan, E. F. Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36099

The production of chemical-free medicinal and aromatic plants has been the focus ofinterest of many researchers and producers in order to ensure the high quality and safety, not only for human, but also for the environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of some bio-fertilization treatments on the growth, yield and sepal quality attributes of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. plant under Taif region conditions.

The bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plant roots grown in the study area and multiplied on media before treatment application. The bio-fertilizers applied in this experiment were Azotobacter chroococcum + Azospirillum brasilense as nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB), Bacillus megatherium var. phosphaticum + Bacillus polymyxa as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and the mixture between them as a combination treatment. Control plants were not treated with any bio-fertilizers. The results of this study showed that vegetative growth parameters, fruit number per plant and sepal yield were significantly increased due to NFB and/or PSB treatments applied relative to the control. The sepal quality attributes i.e. anthocyanin content and total soluble solids of inoculated plants were significantly enhanced in roselle juice compared with un-inoculated control however the pH value was reduced due to bio-fertilizer treatments. Moreover, the total chlorophyll, carbohydrates contents and macro elements of roselle leaves was significantly improved due to bio-fertilizer treatments relative to the control. Applying NFB and/or PSB treatment significantly reduced the nitrate and nitrite contents in roselle leaves relative to un-inoculated control. CO2 evolution in the soil of roselle plants treated with NFB or PSB was significantly higher than untreated plants at any time point during the growth. The combined treatment of NFB + PSB was superior to solely application concerning all investigated parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aggregation of Basic Regular Blood Elements in Calves during the Milk-feeding Phase

T. I. Glagoleva, S. Yu. Zavalishina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34380

Aim: This study aimed to examine the aggregation activity of basic regular blood elements of calves during the milk-feeding phase.

Study Design: The study was initiated in 39 black and white breed calves, which were examined at the ages of 11, 15, 20, 25 and 30 daysat Kolos farm in the Fatezh district of the Kursk region, Russia, in spring, 2014.

Methods: We used biochemical, haematological and statistical methods of investigation. We estimated the intensity of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the plasma, as well as the aggregation of erythrocytes, platelets and neutrophils.

Results: It was found that the calves had an upwards trend of spontaneous erythrocyte aggregation during the milk-feeding phase. This was identified by a slight upwards trend in the total quantity of erythrocytes in an aggregate, an increase in the quantity of the aggregates themselves and a decreased number of disaggregated erythrocytes. All the calves had a trend towards an increase of platelet aggregation during the milk-feeding phase; at the age of 11 days, their period of platelet aggregation development under collagen impact was equal to 30.7±0.12s. This decreased to some extent during the study. A similar healthy animal platelet aggregation was observed for adenosine diphosphate (to the end of the phase - 38.1±0.15s) and ristomicin (to the end of the phase - 46.2±0.17s). In the later period, platelet aggregation that was developed with thrombin or adrenaline also showed trends towards slight acceleration during the study period, and was equal to 51.3±0.18s and 98.0±0.34s, respectively, at the end of the study. The calves also had a slight trend towards increasing neutrophil aggregation during the milk-feeding phase; it increased by 4.6% with lectin, by 6.4%, with concanavalin A and by 3.2% with phytogemagglutinin.

Conclusion: During the milk-feeding phase, the calves showed low LPO activity in plasma, with a slight upwards trend. These calves, aged between 11 and 30 days, had little increase in the aggregation of regular blood elements.

Open Access Review Article

Adiponectin: Obesity and Development of Different Diseases

Q. F. B. Amado Israel de la Cruz Galindo, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán Benítez, Enrique Morales Avila

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36281

Adiponectin is an adipokine abundantly expressed in adipose tissue, which has been well characterized, demonstrating its beneficial effect on human health, circulates in the bloodstream in various isoforms, playing different roles in the balance of energy homeostasis. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing hormone that exerts its action through AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and T-cadherin receptors. AdipoR1 is abundantly expressed in muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is expressed predominantly in the liver. Adiponectin is inversely proportional to obesity, diabetes and other states of insulin resistance; this review presents current findings regarding regulation, production and biological effects. Adiponectin acts by activating AMPk (AMP-activated protein kinase) and thus the enzymatic modulation so that the signaling pathways play an important role in the regulation, in addition to the above it has been demonstrated that the deregulation in the biogenesis and function of the miRNAs contributes to the appearance and development of diverse diseases.