Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV-AIDS Patients Attending Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital Birnin-Kebbi, Nigeria

F. U. Bunza, I. Z. Wasagu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35688

Aims: To assess lipid profile among HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and controls in our environment.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 120 participants consisting of 40 HIV patients on ART, 40 ART-naïve patients and 40 negative controls.

Place and Duration of Study: Antiretroviral Clinic, Sir Yahayya Memorial Hospital, Birnin-Kebbi and Chemical Pathology Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between March, 2016 and June, 2016.

Methodology: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) were assayed based on enzymatic methods using SELECTRA XL automated chemistry analyzer with analysis in batches. LDL-c and atherogenic index (AI) was calculated using Friedwald’s formula (LDL-c = TC-(TG/2.2)-HDL-c mmol/L) (Satya, 2011) and TC/HDL-c respectively.

Results: Our result showed that the mean values of TC and HDLc was significantly higher (p<0.01) in HIV patients on ART compared to controls. The serum LDL-c was significantly lower (p<0.05) between patients on ART and controls. AI was significantly lower (p<0.01) in HIV patients on ART compared to controls. There was no statistically significant difference in TC and AI (P>0.05) between ART-naïve HIV-patients and controls. However, statistically significant difference was observed in BMl and LDL-c (P<0.05) in ART-naïve HIV-patients and controls. No statistically significant difference observed in the mean age, TG and LDL-c (P>0.05) between the patients on ART and ART-naïve patients. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in TC, HDL-c, AI and BMl in patients on ART compared to ART-naïve patients.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that HIV infected patients have a host of variations in their lipid profile compared to HIV negative controls in our environment. The dyslipidemia levels, high LDL-c and TG were found in patients compared to control. ART could have additional advantage of enhancing HDL-c and may be associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compensatory Responses of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) fry under Different Feed-deprivation Regimes in Happas in the Westhern – Cameroon

Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué, Simplice François Noumeu Kendi, Guegang Tekou, Minette Eyango Tomedi –Tabi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36559

Aims: Compensatory growth in the fry of Cyprinus carpio was assessed to improve the aquaculture production

Place and Duration of Study: The trial was conducted between April 25 and June 19, 2015 in the Westhern Cameroon Highlands.

Study Design: For this purpose, four (04) food restriction times (T0, T1, T2 and T3) corresponding respectively to 0, 1, 2 and 3 days in alternation; were tested in stochastic triplicate on fry of mean body weight 1.06 ± 0.19 g and of mean total length 4.1 ± 0.06 cm in 12 happas of 0.5 m3 each, placed in a concrete tank of 2.2 m3.

Methodology: Every 14 days in each control fishery and at the end of the test, fishes were harvested and the zootechnical parameters (individual standard and total lengths and individual weight of the fish as well as that of the food) were evaluated using an ichthyometer and electronic balance respectively. The total population was counted in each happa and the food was distributed manually in 3 meals per day. Every day, food refusal were harvested and dried in the sun.

Results: The survival rate was higher at T0 (90%) compared to restricted treatments. The fry subjected to two days of food restriction (T2) recorded significantly higher growth performances compared to other treatments.  The feed conversion and feed efficiency have evolved respectively with a significant difference between treatments. The cost of producing a kilogram of fry was significantly lower in T2 compared to other treatments. Lot T2 showed a chemical composition of the carcass significantly better than other batches.

Conclusion: This study reveals that fry of Cyprinus carpio showed compensatory growth with a 65% reduction in production cost as a result of dietary restriction of two days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Renal Function among Type 2 Diabetics Attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto Nigeria

F. U. Bunza, I. Z. Wasagu, M. K. Dallatu, M. M. Hadiza

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35689

Aims: To assess the renal function among type 2 diabetics in Sokoto, Nigeria.

Study Design: The cross-sectional study involved 100 diabetic patients and 50 apparently healthy (normoglycaemic) controls.

Place and Duration of Study: General Out Patient Department (GOPD), Specialist Hospital, Sokoto and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between April, 2015 and September, 2015.

Methodology: Serum glucose was estimated using glucose oxidase method, serum urea using diacetylmonoxime method, creatinine using Jaffes’ method, potassium and sodium using Flame photometry (Jenway).

Results: Our results showed that, diabetic subjects were 69 (69%) males and 31(31%) females with mean age of 49.32±1.10 and controls (normoglycaemic) subjects with 26.28± 0.68. The mean values for urea and creatinine, was significantly higher (p<0.05) in diabetics than in controls (4.30±0.20, 1.02±0.068) and (3.61±0.12, 0.76±0.05) respectively. No statistically significant difference observed (p>0.05) in serum levels of potassium and sodium in the diabetics compared to controls. However, no statistically significant difference observed in BMI (p>0.05) of the patients (21.14±3.0) compared to controls (22.03±0.02).

Conclusion: It has been observed from this study that, there is a deranged renal function among type 2 diabetics attending Specialists Hospital, Sokoto. It is therefore recommended that assessment of renal function be included in the routine assessment of the diabetics. Hence, clinicians could make treatment and/or preventive measures even before it becomes clinically evident.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Natural Anti-Acne Cream Containing Syzygium samarangense Fruits Extract

Mahendran Sekar, Fouzia Hanim Abdul Halim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36467

Pimple, acne, sunburn mark and pigmentation are issues that affected every individual at least once during life time. Consumers have begun to search for a product that can cure the skin issue and grant them with a good and healthy skin such as anti-acne cream. Nevertheless, most of the anti-acne creams available in the market contain lots of chemicals that may have some kinds of side effects to the consumers. The present study was conducted to formulate and evaluate the anti-acne cream containing Syzygium samarangense fruits extract. The antibacterial activity of the extract and cream in different concentrations were investigated using two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) through disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potential of the extract was studied with four different concentrations (5, 10 and 25 mg/ml). The extract showed significant antibacterial activity against all the tested organisms. This activity was well maintained when the extract was incorporated into the cream formulation with the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml. The formulated cream was also stable after two months. This formulated creams can be successfully used for skin infections which including acne vulgaris, after the confirmation of clinical and toxicity studies in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Rhizomes of Bemban (Donax grandis) Grown under Glasshouse Conditions

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36041

Aims: The aim of this study is to find out the results of proximate analysis, antioxidant activity and mineral composition of leaves and rhizomes of Donax grandis (locally known as Bemban), an underexploited herbaceous plant that is usually used to cure shingles and snake bites in Malaysia.

Study Design: The rhizomes of D. grandis were purchased from Sungai Lembing, Pahang and were propagated for two months in the glasshouse. The seedlings were then planted in soilless medium containing coco-peat, burnt paddy husk and well composted chicken manure in 5:5:1 (v/v) ratio in 25-cm diameter polyethylene bags.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Department of Biology, University of Putra Malaysia between June 2014 and August 2014.

Methodology: Proximate analysis and antioxidant activity were performed using standard AOAC methods. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry.  

Results: Generally, the leaves of D. grandis contained the highest values in terms of proximate analysis, antioxidant activity and minerals compared to the rhizomes. The results indicated that Donax grandis was rich in lipids, carbohydrates and total ash. The high amount of total ash (34.21%) suggests a high-value in terms of mineral composition comprising of potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium as the main elements. The total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, DPPH and FRAP values in the leaves were found to be higher (7.12 mg GAE/ g dry weight, 3.21 mg rutin/g dry weight, 1.27 mg/g, 58.2% and 515.21 mmol Fe 2+/g) in comparison to the rhizomes. The DPPH and FRAP showed a strong positive correlation with total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid indicating that the antioxidant effect might be related to these secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The present study indicated that D. grandis leaves would serve as a rich source of energy, antioxidants as well as micronutrients for human consumption.