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Open Access Original Research Article

Roosting Behaviour of Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus) Inhabiting the Arid Zone of Rajasthan

Madan Lal Meghwal, K. C. Soni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36661

The word “Roost” means “a sleeping house of fowls”. The roosting ecology of Black-winged kite was studied from January 2012 to December 2014 in rural and urban areas of Churu city and rural areas of Ratangarh of Churu district, Rajasthan, India (Lat 29˚ N, Long 75˚ E and 286 Msl). The aim of this study was to find out the factors like the roost site selection, tree preference for roosting and roosting hours of Black-winged kite to help in long term management and conservation of this bird. During this period, 29 roosting sites were studied out of which 24 (82.76%) roosting sites were located in rural areas while 5 (17.24%) roosting sites were located in urban areas. Temporary and permanent roosting sites were mostly located near agriculture farm houses and sand dunes. Twelve species of trees were available for roosting out of which only one species of trees was mostly preferred for roosting, namely Khejari (Prosopis cineraria). It prefers Khejari (Prosopis cineraria) tree due to its height, canopy and diameter at breast height (DBH). The waking and sleeping calls were also recorded during this study period. The average waking calls were made at 06:11 hr SD±0.50 hr (n=12) and average sleeping calls were made at 18:54 SD±0.04 hr (n=12) in summer season. It roosts early in the winter and late in the summer and rainy season because the duration of the day time is longer than the winter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple Shoots Induction from Indigenous Nigerian Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

Olawole O. Obembe, Oluwadurotimi S. Aworunse, Oluwakemi A. Bello, Abosede O. Ani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35756

Aim: The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for in vitro regeneration of a Nigerian indigenous pumpkin (C. pepo L.) via seedling-derived cotelydon, cotyledonary node and hypocotyl explants.

Study Design: A combination of 0.00, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 mgl-1 of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.00 or 0.05 mgl-1 of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for each explant type were set up in three replicates making a total of 36 culture vessels in the entire experimental set up. Five explants were cultured per combination.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was conducted in the Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, between January 2017 and July 2017.

Methodology: Hypocotyl, cotyledonary node and cotyledon explants derived from 4-week old-seedlings were cultured on MS medium fortified with 0.00, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 mgl-1 of BAP in combination with 0.00 or 0.05 mgl-1 of 2,4-D and investigated for callus, shoot and root induction.

Results: A combination of 1.00 mgl-1 BAP with 0.05 mgl-1 2,4-D was optimum for callus induction from hypocotyl and cotyledonary node explants, while for cotyledon explants, 2.00 mgl-1 BAP in combination with 0.05 mgl-1 2,4-D was preferred. Cotyledonary node explants and cotyledonary node explant-derived callus responded with multiple shoots (4.50±0.042 and 4.07±0.067 shoots per explant, respectively) on full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (control) devoid of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs). When the different explant types were cultured on MS media amended with the different concentrations of BAP in combination with 2,4-D, neither shoot nor root induction was observed. All the explants initiated roots when cultured on full strength PGR-free medium. Only cotyledon explant-derived callus formed roots (2.30±0.56cm) on PGR-free MS medium.

Conclusion: Regeneration of indigenous vegetables, such as Cucurbita pepo is achievable through hypocotyl, cotyledonary node and cotyledon explants with or without PGRs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Polymorphism with Blood Lead and Hemoglobin Level in Lead Exposed Workers

Ankit Nariya, Ambar Pathan, Naumita Shah, Alpesh Patel, Shiva Chettiar, Jayesh Vyas, Idris Shaikh, Devendrasinh Jhala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35844

Introduction: Despite decades of intensive research, lead toxicity still remains one of the most health concerns. Hence, risks posed by lead are more likely to be determined by individual susceptibility as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene can modify lead toxicokinetics.

Method: The present study was aimed to evaluate the association of ALAD gene polymorphism (rs1800435 C/G) (ALAD 1-1, ALAD 1-2, ALAD 2-2) with blood lead level (BLL) and hemoglobin (Hb) content from 200 lead-exposed workers of Gujarat, India against 200 controls.

Results: ALAD genotype frequency was found to be 90%, 8% and 2% in control whereas 80%, 14.5% and 5.5% in workers for ALAD 1-1, 1-2 and 2-2 genotypes, respectively. ALAD 1-1 genotype was attributed to higher BLL and lower Hb content as compared to ALAD 1-2/2-2 genotype in workers. Whereas, inverse association had been observed between BLL and Hb content in workers having ALAD 1-1 genotype. On the other hand, ALAD 1-2/2-2 genotype might play an important role in lead toxicity by decreasing free lead in blood and by transporting into tissues due to more binding affinity. So, it may protect Hb against free lead by decreasing lead availability in blood.

Conclusion: To deal with lead toxicity more effectively, attention should be given to the workers having the ALAD 1-1 genotype.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Solvents Extracts of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark and Partial Characterization of Most Active Extract(s)

A. A. Imam, M. D. Ezema, I. U. Muhammad, M. K. Atiku, A. J. Alhassan, A. Idi, H. Abdullahi, A. Mohammed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36235

Alstonia boonei, a plant locally called ‘Egbu’ in South Eastern Nigeria is used traditionally in the treatment of malaria in the region. This research was carried out to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of different solvents extract (aqueous, methanol and chloroform) of Alstonia boonei against NK-65 Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infected mice. A total of 84 mice were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei and left for 7 days for optimum parasitaemia development after which they were screened for malarial parasites using thin blood film. They were then randomly divided into 12 groups of 7 mice per cage. Group 1 serves as negative control, Groups 2-4 animals were administered with aqueous extract at a dose of 150, 250 and 500 mgkg-1 per day for nine days,Groups 5-7 animals were administered with methanol extract at a dose of 150, 250 and 500 mgkg-1 per day for nine days while Groups 8-10 animals were administered with chloroform extract at a dose of 150, 250 and 500 mgkg-1 per day for nine days. Group 11 and 12 were administered with chloroquine and ACT respectively. The antimalarial activity of the different plant extracts was assessed using thin blood films after 3 days, 6 days and 9 days of the extract administration. Results showed that all the extracts had intrinsic antimalarial properties that were both dose dependent and duration dependent. It showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in mean percentage activity and percentage parasitaemia of the extracts when compared with placebo (distilled water), Chloroquine and ACT, with methanol showing highest activity (99.68%) on day 3 at a dose of 500mg/kg followed by aqueous extract (99.03%) at a dose of 250 mg/kg. GCMS results revealed the presence of Di-n-Octyl phthalate; 3-Nitrophthalic acid, bis – (2, ethylhexyl-ester) and Bis – (3, 5, 5-trimethylhexyl) phthalate as possible bioactive compounds presents in the extracts. The present study demonstrated that Alstonia boonei possess strong antimalarial activity with aqueous extracts possessing the highest activity. Thus, supporting the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of malaria.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: From Synthetics to Naturals

Ashish Kumar Jena, Karan Vasisht, Maninder Karan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-34
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35896

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder of men with multi-factorial etiology, particularly affecting the lifestyle of elderly patients. Sex steroid hormones essential for the development and growth of normal prostate are recognized as major risk factors, though many others such as aging, genetic, diet, hypertension, obesity, smoking, alcohol and physical activity have been identified as playing a significant role. Depending on the stage of BPH, and complications involved, the treatment includes different classes of synthetic drugs and/or surgery while some phytotherapeutic agents also represent the first line of treatment. Numerous plant extracts, fruits, and beverages are used alone or in combinations for the management of BPH with few having emerged as the choicest treatment. The public interest in natural agents is largely because of the side effects related to synthetics and a general fear of morbidity arising out of surgery. The phytotherapeutic agents represent the most promising and safe alternative as antiBPH agents signifying a strong area for further exploration by medicinal chemists. This review provides a complete insight on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, various risk factors involved, and different therapeutic approaches available. A brief outline of the surgical and synthetic treatment with detailed note on phytotherapeutics as the treatment options for the prevention and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) is provided.