Open Access Original Research Article

Fecal Bacteria Alteration in Adult Obese Egyptian; Escherichia coli and Its Relationship with Body Composition and Blood Lipids

Elham M. Youssef Elabd, Wafaa A. Kandeel, Heba A. Elmalt, Hatim A. El-Baz, K. H. El-Wakeel, Ola M. Abdel Samie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36386

Aims: To evaluate the differences of culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in fecal samples of obese and normal weight groups of adult Egyptian, and to compare Escherichia coli number in both groups to determine whether alterations in blood lipid level, body mass index, fat percentage, and C-reactive protein can be explained by such obesity induced dysbiosis.

Study Design: Quantitative determination of fecal bacteria and anthropometric measurements were carried out in selected obese and normal weight subjects of adult Egyptian; in addition to the analysis of blood lipid levels and other biochemical parameters.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of biochemistry, department of microbiology and immunology, National Research Centre, between May 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: We studied forty-seven female subjects over the age of 20. They were divided into two groups which were identified as obese group (BMI ≥30 kg m2), and control group (BMI 19 -25 kg m2). Twelve hour fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, fecal samples were collected in the morning for bacteria cultivation and E. coli colony counting. Anthropometric measurements were evaluated in all subjects.

Results: Data analysis revealed variations in gut flora composition (Clostridium, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and E. coli), lipid profile, and C-reactive protein between obese and control groups. Moreover, it showed a significant increase in colonies of E. coli species in obese subject when compared with control (p 0.05) and a positive significant correlation between log number of E. coli and serum total lipids (r = 0.45; p 0.01), body weight (r = 0.4; p 0.02), chest circumference (r = 0.5; p 0.04 ), hip circumference (r = 0.4; p 0.03).

Conclusion: Our studies suggest that the gut bacteria, E. coli, may play an important role in body weight gain and blood lipid levels. Therefore our findings support the potential of therapies altering the gut microbiome to control metabolic disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic and Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Respiratory Diseases in Seksaoua Region (Western High Moroccan Atlas)

Hind Sbai-Jouilil, Anas Fadli, Mohamed El Hafian, Rachida El Ayad, Omaima Benharbit, Lahcen Zidane

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36526

This paper presents the results of a floristic and ethnobotanical study carried out in Seksaoua region (western High Atlas, Morocco), which aims to collect and document information about the diversity of medicinal flora used in traditional herbal medicines in this region.

The study, which covered 30 stations, was conducted during the season 2014-2015 using 746 investigation sheets and stratified method for sampling. The results obtained reported a total of 98 plant species used against respiratory diseases by the local population of Seksaoua. These species were identified as belonging to 81 genera and 43 families with the domination of Lamiaceae (19), Asteraceae (8) and Apiaceae (7). Leaves (22.33%) and seeds (20.58%) were the most used plant parts and decoction was the most used method for medicine preparation.

This study presents a useful data and starting point for future research on chemical compounds of medicinal plants. It also provides a scientific basis to sensitize people to the importance of local medicinal plant heritage and to adjust their traditional use of these plants in such a way to avoid toxicities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycotoxin and Fungal Contamination of Fresh and Dried Tomato

Eman M. Hegazy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35571

Background: Tomato is an important crop cultivated in Egypt. Huge amount of fresh tomatoes were lost and negatively affected human health because of fungal diseases. Drying process represent easy and applicable techniques to minimize tomatoes infection notably mycotoxigenic fungi. The economical problem of tomato comes from its price had 10-fold increase in the last decade.

Methodology: The commercial ripe tomato samples (30) obtained from local super-market at Giza during October 2015 were used to evaluate the effect of drying with those from Egyptian agriculture centre, Giza, which considered as control. A. flavus and Alt. alternata have been isolated from sample, Alt. alternata observed inside tomato using scanning electron microscope. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and tenuazonic acid were determined. The infected and spoiled samples were discarded and the uniform with healthy were selected to study and were divided into 4 groups, three of them were cut into slices; the fourth group was converted to juice. The product of all groups were divided into 2 sets the first set was dried by solar energy, and the second treated by freeze-dryer. All sets sample packaged in plastic bags, stored at 25°C for one year, and inspected for fungal growth.

Results and Discussion: The freeze-dried samples color appeared nearest to fresh tomato by highly coast. No fungal growth appeared through storage. The isolated fungi weren't able to produce either aflatoxin or tenuazonic acid. None of ochratoxin A or aflatoxins was detected in analyzed samples. Tenuazonic acid detected at low levels of concentration (0.680 ug/kg) in inside rotted ripped samples.

Conclusion: All tomato samples were free from either aflatoxins or ochratoxin A. alternaria fungi recorded as inside rotted. However the effectiveness and promising results of freeze-dried samples which near to fresh-like samples it's expensive cost considered as major problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Regeneration of Banana and Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in the Regenerated Plantlets through RAPD

Kamalakshi Devi, Manab Bikash Gogoi, Salvinder Singh, Bidyut K. Sarmah, Mahendra K. Modi, Priyabrata Sen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36339

Amrit Sagar belonging to banana (Musa acuminata) genome group AAA is popularly grown in North Eastern part of India for its high yield and natural disease resistance potential. The explants were established initially on supplemented Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) mediums followed by subculturing for multiple shoot induction. Various concentrations of BAP were tested to improve the quality and quantity of multiple shoots induction, out of which 10 mg/l BAP gave the best result. A total of 6-8 cycles of subcultures were carried out, each with an interval of 20-25 days. Among these, well established healthy shoots of 4-5 cm were transferred onto rooting medium containing 10 mg/l sucrose. After 3 weeks, plantlets were carefully acclimatized to adapt the green house condition and subsequently transferred to field. Appearance of off-types of plantlets during the course of micropropagation were assessed with random marker i.e. RAPD for precise monitoring of quality control during rapid mass micropropagation. Out of 15 random decamer primers used, 12 generated well distinguished and reproducible pattern of amplified DNA. The RAPD profile analyzed with NTSYS-pc 2.02, revealed that the tested plantlets were similar to that of the mother plant with a very low level of polymorphism (9%). Thus, it can be asserted that the protocol used to generate the in vitro plantlets is safe and conforms to genetic fidelity.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Starter Cultures on the Properties of Meat Products: A Review

Zahra Pilevar, Hedayat Hosseini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36330

Given that competitive microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) they must not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of food products. Lactic acid bacteria have been extensively studied and are usually used commercially as biopreservatives to decrease the population of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in meat and meat products throughout different mechanisms including depletion of nutrients, creation of acidic environment or production of antimicrobial metabolites such as bacteriocins, reuterin and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, several types of starter cultures are added to traditional meat products that can have interactions with pathogens and probiotics. These bacteria may develop texture, color and flavoring properties, produce buffering components, prevent lipid oxidation, restrict formation of biogenic amines and cause protein changes or even accelerate polychlorinated biphenyls degradation. In this review article after a brief introduction to the subject different types of starter culture and their modes of action are explained. Moreover, application of starter cultures with other hurdles in meat industry as well as their safety and toxicity aspects from different microbial and chemical points of view is comprehensively evaluated.