Open Access Minireview Article

Molecular Breeding of Submergence-tolerant Rice

Kirill V. Azarin, Alexander V. Usatov, Pavel I. Kostylev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35616

Rice is a unique crop which is generally grown in submerged soil. However, not all rice varieties according to its genotype can tolerate to complete flooding. The selection using DNA markers is now frequently used in real breeding programs, including for the development of submergence-tolerant rice. This review summarizes the researches devoted the problem of breeding of submergence tolerant rice. Data on mechanisms, adaptation strategies, loci associated with tolerance to this stress are given. We had placed great emphasis on investigations aimed at application of molecular-genetic markers in the breeding of complete flooding tolerant varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acid Composition of Sour-milk Drink with Encapsulated Probiotics

Aitbek Kakimov, Zhaynagul Kakimova, Gulmira Mirasheva, Aigerim Bepeyeva, Sandugash Toleubekova, Madina Jumazhanova, Gulmira Zhumadilova, Zhanibek Yessimbekov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36079

At present time, there has been a growing interest in the consumption of probiotic food products. This study presents the results of the determination of amino acids in sour-milk drink with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei probiotics. Probiotics were encapsulated in pectin capsules by extrusion method. Totally, the sour milk drink contains 40.61 g/100 g of essential amino acids, which is higher than the FAO/WHO requirement (36.0 g/100 g). However, limiting amino acids such as, valin (4.86 g/100 g) and methionine+cystein (2.77 g/100 g) are lower than the FAO/WHO data for valine (5.0 g/100 g) and methionine+cystein (3.5 g/100 g). Developed sour milk drink contains 18 essential and non-essential amino acids with large amount of glutamic acid (440.59 mg/100 g), leucine (244.96 mg/100 g), proline (240.64 mg/100 g) and lysine (225.92 mg/100 g). The microbiology analyses of sour milk drink with encapsulated probiotics revealed the absence of pathogenic bacterium, like Salmonella and Staphylococcus St. aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Acacia auriculiformis Cunn. Ex Benth. Seed Germination and Growth Resistance towards Arsenic Toxicity

A. Zarith Sofea, A. Zerkout, A. A. Nor Azwady, G. Rusea, M. Muskhazli

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36490

Aim: Assess the ability of A. auriculiformis to resist arsenic (As) toxicity during germination and growth.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Department of Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, between September 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: A. auriculiformis seeds were germinated in series of As solutions (50 ppm-100 ppm). Each As concentration contained three replicates and each replicate contained ten seeds. After 15 days, germination analysis such as germination percentage, seedling vigor index, relative injury rate and mean germination time were calculated. Meanwhile, another set of A. auriculiformis’s seeds were germinated using distilled water and planted in soil treated with different As concentration. After 60 days, the plant morphology, chlorophyll content and growth rate were also recorded.

Results: The result revealed that, seed germination percentage, seedling vigor index and relative injury rate were significantly reduced at 80-100ppm As concentration, but the mean germination time showed no significant difference between controlled and treated seeds. The growth analysis showed that growth rate and chlorophyll content of treated plants decreased as much as 63.7% and 76.1% respectively. However, all the plants were able to survive up to 100 ppm exposure.

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that A. auriculiformis is capable to resist As contamination during germination and growth, thus showing the potential of species to remove As from soil, as a phytoremediator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Novel and Natural Mosquito Repellent Liquid to Prevent Dengue Mosquitoes

Mahendran Sekar, Farah Nurliyana Abd Rahim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36834

Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus and Cinnamon cassia are plants that grow wildly in many tropical countries of Asia such as Malaysia, China and Indonesia. They belong to the family of Myrtaceae, Graminae, and Lauraceae respectively. Commonly, S. aromaticum and C. cassia are used as spices in Malay cuisine. Their essential oils have a great smelling which able to repel the mosquitoes effectively with less harmful side effects to the users and the environment. The present study was to formulate and evaluate the mosquito repellent liquid against dengue mosquitos, which containing the combination of natural herbs. The plants materials were extracted with methanol using maceration method. The methanolic extract of the plant materials were formulated with the concentration of 10% extracts and 1% essential oils. The formulated liquid mosquito repellent was evaluated using standard procedure stated in SIRIM MS 1497:2007. Ten female mosquitoes were acclimatized and exposed to the odour of the formulated liquid mosquito repellent in the Y-Tube Olfactometer. The formulation showed a significant repellent activity against the dengue mosquitoes with mean of 66.67%, after three consecutive tests. In conclusion, we recommend this product to convert into market standards and need to be commercialized with low cost.

Open Access Review Article

Earthworms Impact in Sustainable Management of Intensively Managed Agro Ecosystems: Indian Scenario

Archana Singh, Tunira Bhaduaria, Gopal Shankar Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36657

Direct effects of agrochemicals on soil and belowground diversity are through indiscriminate application in the agricultural field, but through run off the chemical compounds contaminate the soil. The chemical fertilizers contain many hazardous compounds that may cause severe ecological and social constraints to the farmers as well as affect the micro and macro-fauna present in the soil. The yield and production of crops increased but the food quality for human consume is affected. As, the population increases the food security issue become more underlined, as to maintain the soil fertility and its degradation minimization. Hence, in current years consumer concern increasing for the issues such as food quality, environmental safety, and soil conservation. And, scientists are shifting from agricultural systems depending upon inorganic fertilizers towards viable agricultural practices. Hence, the use of organic fertilizers are promoted over the agrochemicals, but due to the high cost of transportation and solo impacts on yield and productivity not satisfactory. So, the integrated use of vermicompost and chemical fertilizer is adopted nowadays, to maintain belowground biodiversity and crop yield.  We focus on the role of earthworm in ecosystem management with prior emphasis on nutrient management of agro-ecosystems through their castings.