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Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Dynamics of Platelets’ Activity in Aged Rats

I. N. Medvedev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36821

The process of aging inevitably touches the system of hemostasis and leads very often to the development of thrombophilia. Platelets are an important component of hemostasis as they mostly determine its activity on the whole. It’s very interesting to estimate the dynamics of platelet activity in rats as they are important objects of laboratory investigations in the period of their bodies’ evident aging – at the age between 18 and 30 months of life. The aim of the study is to establish the peculiarities of age-specific dynamics of platelet activity in aged rats. There were examined 95 healthy Wister male-rats, including 32 rats at the age of 18 months, 29 rats at the age of 24 months and 34 rats at the age of 30 months. The control group was composed of 27 healthy male-rats of Wistar line at the age of 6 months. We applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. Between 18-30 months of life the rats were noted to have rise of acylhydroperoxides’ content in plasma on 19.9%, thiobarbituric acid-active products – on 18.9% and lowering of plasma antioxidant activity on 23.8%. Between 18-30 months of life healthy rats were found to have gradual acceleration of platelet aggregation (platelet aggregation with ADP at the age of 18 months was equal to 38.4±0.12s, at the age of 30 months – 33.1±0.16s), content increase of platelets’ active forms in their blood (disco-echinocytes at the age of 18 months – 14.0±0.18%, at the age of 30 months – 17.5±0.17%) and number increase of their freely circulating aggregates (small aggregates at the age of 18 months – 3.5±0.09, at the age of 30 months – 7.2±0.13 on 100 freely lying platelets). Found increase of platelet activity in rats contributes greatly to their rising with age morbid aggravation, increase of their bodies’ sensitivity to negative impacts of environmental factors and promotes the realization of hereditary predisposition to different pathology. Received results can be useful for future researches connected with formation aspects of age-specific thrombophilia and can be taken into account at estimation of different variants of life’s experimental prolongation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Specific Changes in Segmental Instability, Pain Sensitivity and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Non-specific Low Back Pain- A Randomized Clinical Trial

Kanchan Kumar Sarker, Jasobanta Sethi, Umasankar Mohanty

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35926

Purpose: Chronic non-specific low back pain (cNSLBP) is quite common as seen every day in clinics. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness of spinal manipulation (High-Velocity Low-Amplitude Thrust) on segmental instability, pain sensitivity, and quality of life among patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

Subjects and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial with 100 patients aged between 18 and 60 years suffering from non-specific low back pain for at least 3 months of duration. 50 subjects were randomly assigned to group A received spinal manipulation and 50 subjects to group B received core stability exercises. After 15 days, scores were measured for segmental instability (centre of foot pressure) by win track platform, pain sensitivity (pain pressure threshold) by digital algometer and health-related quality of life by EuroQol questionnaire.

Results: After treatment, spinal manipulation and core stability exercises had improved segmental instability, increased pressure threshold, and enhanced health-related quality of life. However, significantly better improvement noticed in segmental instability, pressure pain threshold, and quality of life by spinal manipulation compared to core stability exercises.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that spinal manipulation is more effective than core stability exercises in chronic non-specific low back pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Report on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sensu lato) From Some Tomato Producing Agroecological Areas in Southwestern Nigeria and Susceptibility of F1-Resistant Tomato Hybrid (F1-Lindo) to Infection

O. A. Borisade, Y. I. Uwaidem, A. E. Salami

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34626

Aims: To isolate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici from infected tomato plants in selected tomato producing agroecological areas in Southwestern Nigeria and evaluate susceptibility of F1-resistant tomato hybrid (F1-Lindo) to infection, to understand the propensity of adopting the hybrid.

Methodology: Seven F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici were isolated from infected tomato plants collected from some tomato producing agroecological areas in the Southwestern Nigeria. The isolates were identified using their morphological features and characterized based on growth, sporulation rates, lag-time and virulence. Growth rate was estimated using a linear model for estimation of fungal growth. Conidia of five of the isolates were standardized to 1.0 x 106 conidia/mland tested for virulence against Race-1-resistant tomato hybrid, F1-Lindo. Pathogenicity of the fungal isolates were ranked according to severity of damage to the tomato hybrid.

Results: The growth, sporulation rates and the lag time of the isolates showed statistically significant difference, F (16, 4) =249.16, P=0.001. The isolate, ADO-1 had the slowest rate of growth (0.24 mm day-1), while ADO-2 had the fastest growth (1.6 mm day-1) among the seven isolates. The lag time of the isolates showed no statistically significant difference, F (6, 281.06) =0.98, P=0.479 and they were between 4.6 hours to 10.5 hours. Five of the isolates were tested for pathogenicity to tomato and the mean percentage damage recorded (53-61%) were not statistically different F (4, 40384.9) =1.993, P=0.98.

Conclusion: The tomato hybrid, F1-Lindo was considered susceptible to the isolates and it was suggested that the isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici evaluated for virulence were probably other races to which F1-Lindo was susceptible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitic Infections of Two Species of Lizard (Hemidactylus frenatus and Mabuya quinquetaeniata) from Two Cities in Southwest Nigeria

Temitope Ajoke Oluwafemi, Oluyomi Abayomi Sowemimo, Atinuke Olufunbi Bamidele

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35809

Aim: To study the endoparasitic fauna of two species of lizard, a gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) and a scincid (Mabuya quinquetaeniata) from two cities in Southwest Nigeria.

Study Design: A parasitological survey was conducted between February and October, 2015 among lizards collected randomly by handpicking.

Methodology: A total of 233 lizards comprising 172 specimens of gecko (H. frenatus) and 61 specimens of skink (M. quinquetaeniata) were captured by hand, kept in ventilated cages and then examined for helminths. The lizards were dissected open, and the various organs were examined for the presence of parasites. The helminth parasites recovered were identified based on morphometric parameters.

Results: Endoparasites were recovered from both H. frenatus and M. quinquetaeniata. Parasite species which were recovered includes: three nematodes, Parapharyngodon sp., Spirura sp., and Pharyngodon sp., one cestode, Oochoristica truncata, one trematode, Mesocoelium monas, one Pentastomid, Raillietiella frenatus and cytacanth of an unidentified species of Acanthocephala. Five helminth species each was recovered from both species of lizard, however only two helminth species were common to both lizard species. The overall prevalence of helminth species from both lizard species H. frenatus and M. quinquetaeniata was high 64.0% and 72.1% respectively. The overall prevalence of helminth species was higher in males than in females in both species of lizard (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: H. frenatus and M. quinquetaeniata in Southwest Nigeria, are infected by generalist helminths which have been reported in other species of African lizards. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of Spirura sp. and Acanthocephalan in Nigerian lizards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Observations on Onchocerciasis Transmission in Parts of Middle Imo River Basin, Nigeria after Repeated Treatment with Ivermectin

A. A. Amaechi, J. I. Iwunze, F. U. Njoku, M. Nwachukwu, C. Uhuegbu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34086

Onchocerciasis is both public health hazard and socio-economic problem despite concerted efforts and high expenditure on control programme. To assist with certification of elimination, cross sectional study was conducted at Ibii and Lolo Rivers, breeding sites of Simuluim damnosum in the Imo River Basin from September 2015 to February 2016. S. damnosum were caught by human bait technique and assessed for parity, infection and infectivity status. Biting rates and transmission potentials were calculated by standard methods. Of the 591 flies caught/dissected, 0.88% (5/591) were infected with sausage (L1) and pre infective stage (L2) but no infective stage (L3). The distribution of O. volvulus at the two sites were insignificant (P>0.05). The diurnal biting activity exhibited a bimodal pattern with morning (9.00am and 10.00am) and evening (4.00pm and 5.00pm) peaks. Monthly biting rates (MBR) of 2,581 and 1877.25 bites / persons/ months were found for Ibii and Lolo Rivers respectively. The monthly transmission potentials (MTP) for the two stations were zero, indicative of extremely low transmission. The public health implications of these findings are discussed in the context of the on going Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) and elimination strategy of onchocerciasis in the state.