Open Access Original Research Article

Diverse Genetic Screening and Counseling throughout the Iranian Population

Zakieh Arab, Asghar Arshi, Mohammad-Javad Arshi, Zahra Yousefzadeh, Fatemeh Salmani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36990

Background and Aim: The recent decades have witnessed increasing possibilities for genetic testing and screening. In the Iran, since the 1970s, individuals and their family members could obtain genetic counselling for their own risk or diagnosis of a serious genetic disorder or that of their offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the results of screening for genetic disorders in Najafabad-Isfahan.

Methodology: This study was conducted on 2,500 families of Najafabad-Isfahan. 250 of these families were randomly referred for genetic counseling. In these families, the degree and type of disability, the death of children under 2 years of age, abortion and stillbirth were investigated and genetic counseling and tests were carried out in some families.

Results: The findings of this study showed family marriage have been 41% in students' parents and 31% in couples. The highest type of disability in order to frequency was consist of intellectual disability, musculoskeletal, congenital disorders, deafness, microspheres, abortion and stillness, heart problems, vision, blood diseases, CP, death of children under 2 years of age, hydrocephalus, metabolic and autism.

Conclusion: Based on the results of present study it was shown that most disabilities happened in families with familial marriage or families with a history of disability and genetic counseling can be done by informing people at risk to lose the chance of having a child with a disability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fruit Quality Analysis in Four New Mandarin Hybrids during Maturation Period

Majda Stitou, Anas Fadli, Ouiam Chetto, Abdelhak Talha, Rachid Benkirane, Hamid Benyahia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37108

Producing fruits with a desirable degree of maturity and specific organoleptic characteristics has become a necessity in the citrus industry to meet consumer needs. Breeding approaches, with a particular focus on organoleptic quality, may provide the sector with performant varieties and therefore meet its expectations. In this study, four citrus cultivars obtained by hybridization and grafted onto different rootstocks were evaluated for fruit pomological and organoleptic traits, including juice content, organic acids, soluble solids content (SSC). The results obtained for these attributes at different stages of maturity highlighted increasing trends of soluble solids content and maturity index and a decreasing trend of acidity during fruit maturation. In addition, all studied hybrids reached the minimum maturity index (SSC/Acidity = 7.0) by early December. The H8 cultivar was particularly characterized as a late-maturing cultivar since its fruits matured much later than Afourer control. The variation of maturity parameters, which was maintained throughout the harvest period, was influenced by variety and harvest time, while the rootstock factor had little effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytolith Transport in Texturally Differentiated Soils

A. Gavrilov Denis

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37227

Aims: Over the last decade phytolith analysis has been increasingly used in paleoenvironmental, archeological and paleopedological research. It resulted in standardization of phytolith sample collection, laboratory methods of phytolith extraction, counting and developing reference collections. In spite of all these advances some issues of phytolith translocation in soil profiles have not been comprehensively studied. This study describes an attempt to assess phytolith translocation along the profile of texturally differentiated soils. 

Study Design: Comparative analysis of the two soil profiles.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry SB RAS, Core Facility “Cenozoic geochronology” (both in Novosibirsk, Russia), and the Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia (Athens, USA), between June 2015 and May 2016.

Methodology: Catenary approach, accelerator mass spectrometry dating and phytolith analysis were used to register phytolith translocation down the profile of polygenetic Umbric-Cutanic Albeluvisols.

Results: The obtained results allowed to establish, depending on soil catenary position and the extent of profile texture differentiation, the following: 1) some facts of phytoliths’ translocation, 2) varying rate of 14C-phytoliths’ rejuvenation, and 3) changes in soil phytolith profiles due to eluvial-illuvial processes. The most pronounced changes in phytolith profiles were found in soils at eluvial position of the catena, while smaller changes were observed in the soil at the transit positions.

Conclusion: The possible translocation of phytolith down soil profiles should be taken into consideration while performing phytolithic analysis of forest soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Trace Metal Contents of Drinking Water Samples of District Tiruchirappalli

C. A. Arockiaraj, E. R. Nagarajan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36311

The analytical data of various physico-chemical parameters indicates that some parameters like pH, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Electrical Conductivity, DO, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Iron are found to be excess than the prescribed limit in some groundwater samples of the study areas. The mean levels (mg L-1) of the metals ranged thus; 0.1 (Cd), 0.2 (Pb), 0.2 (As), 0.1 (Ni), 4.8 (Fe), 0.3 (Cr). The objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around the places of town which is in the south and north of the City which suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial area. The changes in the physico-chemical characteristics like temperature, transparency and chemical elements of water such as dissolved oxygen, nitrate and Calcium provide valuable information on the quality of the water, the source (s) of the variations and their impacts on the functions and biodiversity of the reservoir.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Serum Transaminases and CD4 Counts in HIV Patients on ART Regimens Containing Zidovudine versus Stavudine

Usha Adiga, Sachidananda Adiga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37288

Introduction: There has been a significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity associated with AIDS, due to the availability of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART). However adverse drug reactions related to ART use makes the treatment challenging. Aim of the study was to compare serum transaminases in HIV patients on two regimens; zidovudine versus stavudine, either of them administered in combination with nevirapine and lamivudine as well as to compare their efficacy, taking basal CD4 counts and after treatment CD4 counts as tools of comparison.

Methods: A retrospective observational study on 46 adult HIV patients, receiving AZT+3TC+NVP (ZLN) (group I) and 22 patients on D4T+3TC+NVP (SLN) (group II) was carried out. Data of baseline CD4 cell counts, serially monitored CD4 count values (once in 6 months) and serum transaminases were noted. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 16.

Results: A very significant elevation of transaminases was observed at 6 months and 1 year in ZLN group (P<0.01). CD4 counts were also significantly high (P<0.05). SLN group didn’t show any significant differences in liver enzymes and CD4 counts at 6 months and 1 year. Extent of elevation of CD4 count was higher in ZLN group.

Conclusion: Zidovudine based regimen was associated with mild elevation of liver enzymes as compared to stavudine based regimen. Improvement in CD4 counts was better with zidovudine regimen. Zidovudine, even though associated with mild hepatotoxicity, was found to be beneficial.