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Open Access Minireview Article

Animal Welfare in Ecotourism

Carys Louisa Williams, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37440

The negative welfare experienced by some animals within the tourism trade has been well publicised across various mediums, from modern scientific literature and industry audits to public outcry on social media. However, options for sustainable, enjoyable and responsible animal based tourism do exist. The difficulty lies in providing sufficient and effective information to tourists to allow them to make decisions to visit attractions which match their ‘eco’ conservation and animal welfare expectations. Through the highlighting of successful fieldwork case studies, impactful discussions and future research can be pursued.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Peculiarities of Vessels’ Disaggregating Control over New-Born Calves’ Erythrocytes

T. I. Glagoleva, S. Yu. Zavalishina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37232

Introduction: The process of microcirculation determines significantly the common physiological status of calves including the new-born phase. The success of microcirculation process in tissues mostly depends on aggregation evidence of the most numerous population of regular blood elements – erythrocytes and the level of vascular wall’s disaggregating control over them.

The aim is to determine peculiarities of vascular control over erythrocytes’ aggregation in new-born calves.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 32 calves of black-multicolored breed. All the calves were healthy and were got from healthy cows after normally progressing pregnancy. All the animals were kept on the territory of Central Russia. They were examined on the 1st-2nd, 3rd-4th, 5th-6th, 7th-8th and 9th-10th days of ontogenesis. Lipid peroxidation in plasma was estimated by standard methods according to the amount of thiobarbituric acid-active products and the level of acylhydrazines with the account of plasma antioxidant activity. Spontaneous aggregation of erythrocytes and its response to temporary venous occlusion were also estimated. A single-factor analysis of variance was used with application of Fisher’s F-reliability criterion. Differences in data were considered to be statistically significant at р<0.05.

Results: In the course of the new-born phase the calves were noted to have a weak trend to strengthening of initially low erythrocytes’ aggregative activity (the number of erythrocytes’ aggregates on the 1st-2nd day was equal to 8.0±0.14, on the 9th-10th day – 8.2±0.19). The presence of inactive erythrocytes’ aggregation in new-born calves was mostly provided by strong disaggregating vessels’ impact on them (the index of vessels’ control over the quantity of erythrocyte aggregates on the 1st-2nd day was equal to 1.11±0.004, on the 9th-10th day – 1.17±0.003). Found level of accountable indices is mostly connected with low activity of examined animals’ plasma peroxidation (acylhydroperoxides on the 1st-2nd day were equal to 1.53±0.26 D233/1 ml, on the 9th-10th day – 1.42±0.31 D233/1 ml), what damaged weakly the membranes of erythrocytes and endotheliocytes.

Conclusion: New-born calves are characterized by physiologically favorable for microcirculation balance of erythrocytes’ aggregation and vascular wall’s disaggregating control over it. Received values of hematological indices can be useful for further researches of new-born calves’ physiology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Biochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Orthosiphon staminues Benth (Misai Kucing) Under Cadmium Exposure

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Ahmad Ismail, Hishamuddin Omar, Mohd Noor Hisham Mohd Nadzir, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36413

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cadmium (0, 3,6, 9 mg/kg) on the primary, secondary metabolites, biochemical and antioxidant activity in Orthosiphon stamineus.

Study Design: Orthosiphon stamineus seedlings were exposed to four levels of Cd (0, 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg) in the form of CdCl2 and were applied to the media during preparation. The experiment was organized in a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with three replications. Each experimental unit consisted of five seedlings, and there was a total of 135 seedlings used in the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia between August 2013 to September 2013.

Methodology: Total soluble sugar and starch were determined spectrophometically using anthrone reagent, Total phenolics and flavonoid were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation were measured using potassium iodide (KI) and thiobarbiturate acid (TBA). The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH reagent. Phenyll alanine lyase activity (PAL) was determined by using transcinnmic acid and cadmium determination by using inductively coupled plasma emission (ICPMS).

Results: Increased in Cd from 0 > 9 mg/kg, the production of total phenolics and flavonoid was enhanced in the shoot compared to the root parts. It was found that enhancement of total phenolics and total flavonoids might be contributed by enhancement of PAL and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) activity under cadmium exposure. Although total phenolic and total flavonoids increased, the antioxidant activity (DPPH) was reduced with high levels of Cd. It was also found that cadmium accumulated more in roots compared to the shoot. There was accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation as levels of Cd increased from 0 > 9 mg/kg indicating DNA damage under excess levels of cadmium. Total chlorophyll content also was reduced with increasing levels of cadmium indicating that cadmium disrupt nitrogen uptake of O. stamineus. The study showed that O. stamineus exposed to cadmium accumulate cadmium above the level recommended by WHO indicating there is a safety hazard when this plant is consumed for medicinal purposes.

Conclusion: The current study revealed that cadmium contamination would reduce the medicinal properties of O. stamineus although the production of secondary metabolites increased. This is explained by enhanced production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, but lower DPPH values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecosystem Perception among Artisanal Fishermen: A Case Study of Akpabuyo and Bakassi Coastal Fishing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

M. O. Effiong, C. U. Ogbonna

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37431

The link between fisheries and their ecosystems are deeper and more significant than those that exist in mainstream agriculture. It is evident that the fisheries sub-sector is experiencing lots of environmental challenges arising from climate change, ecosystem, global warming, amongst others. Artisanal fish productivity is tied to the health and functioning of the ecosystems on which it depends for food, habitat and seed dispersal. This suggest the need to assess the extent to which artisanal fishers perceives the existence of ecosystem effect on artisanal fisheries. Specifically, the study sets to; assess the demographic characteristics and livelihoods of artisanal fishers in the area; assess the perceived impacts of ecosystem on the livelihood of artisanal fisheries; assess the perceptions of artisanal fishers on the ecosystem; determine the difference between mean fishing income and non-fishing income among artisanal fishers in the area; investigate the adaptation strategies adopted by fisher folks to cushion the effects of ecosystem from where the constraints militating against artisanal fish production were examined. The data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire and was analyzed using descriptive and a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis (Chi-square) test. As a major coastal fishing area in the zone and in Cross River State at large, Akpabuyo and Bakassi Local Government Areas were purposively selected. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select sixty (60) artisanal fishers that constituted the sample size for the study. Results of the demographic characteristics showed that majority (82.1% & 71.9%) of the respondents were males who are married within the age bracket of 51–60 years. Artisanal fishers in the area were not just known for having large family size (between 4-8 and 9-12 children) but educationally disadvantaged as majority (59.4% & 57.1%) had only attend primary and secondary education. The respondents (35.7% and 40.6%) in Bakassi and Akpabuyo saw artisanal fishing as their major occupation as majority had been in the business for more than 15 years. In addition, majority of the respondents (75%) were aware of the existence of ecosystem in the area. Also, majority of respondents (39.3% and 59.4%) in both Bakassi and Akpabuyo affirmed that highest catch is usually recorded between April to June and between July to September for lowest catch in the area. Using the Likert scale approach, a weighted mean of 2.86 and Kruskal wallis test value of 22.519 with df =3, p<0.000 was used to assess the perceived impact of ecosystem on the livelihood of artisanal fishers. The result obtained revealed that pollution decreases artisanal fish production, afforestation increases artisanal fish production, increase in rainfall has positive impact on artisanal fish production, soil microbes has positive impact on artisanal fish production, increased temperature from sunlight decreases artisanal fish production, infestation of parasites and soil microbes has a positive impact on artisanal fish production and prolonged dry season decreases fish production. Similarly, a weighted mean of 0.86 and Kruskal wallis test value of 12.617, df = 3, p<0.006 indicated that there is a significant difference in the perception of artisanal fishers to ecosystem in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Corn Starch Films Incorporated with Zataria multiflora and Bonium persicum Essential Oils

Majid Aminzare, Mohammad Hashemi, Hassan Hassanzadazar, Elham Amiri, Zahra Abbasi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37103

Introduction: Nowadays biodegradable packaging such as edible coatings and films, are known as alternatives to plastic compounds and synthetic packaging since they are carriers for food additives (e.g. natural ingredients) and they do not cause any environmental contamination. Antimicrobial bioactive films are a special type of packaging carrying antimicrobial agents that can reduce the risks of food pathogens and consequently, increase the shelf-life of the foodstuff.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial effect of biodegradable starch film containing Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum (concentration range from 1 to 20 mg/ml) essential oils was examined on four species of bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disk diffusion and plate count assay methods.

Results: The results of the disk diffusion method showed that the highest antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum essential oils was related to the concentration of 20 mg/ml, which in this concentration the maximum diameter of the inhibition zone for S. aureus (most sensitive bacteria) was recorded to be 31.3 mm and 22.36 mm respectively. Also, E. coli was determined as the most resistant bacteria with a diameter of the inhibition zone of 26.13 mm and 19 mm for Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum respectively. The results of plate count assay showed that there was a significant difference in colony counts of L. monocytogenesS. aureus and P. aeruginosa treated between films containing the lowest concentration of Zataria multiflora essential oil (1 mg/ml) and control samples (P<0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, the corn starch bioactive films incorporated with the essential oils of Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum can be used as safe antimicrobial compounds in the food packaging industry.