Open Access Original Research Article

Improve Hygienic Quality of Egyptian Karish Cheese Employing Isolated Antagonistic Lactobacilli Strains

Marwa G. Allam, Amira M. G. Darwish, Eman H. E. Ayad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37116

Good health is one of the sustainable development goals. This study aims to improve hygienic quality of Karish Egyptian traditional cheese, using two wild antagonistic Lactobacilli isolates used as individual starter cultures; KP623 (Lb. plantarum) and KP654 (Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) isolated from Karish cheese to keep autochthonous properties and function as bio-preservatives to extend shelf life. Collected Karish cheese samples were micro-biologically analyzed. Two isolates; KP623 and KP654 were selected for application out of thirty-seven Lactobacilli lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated strains and identified via 16S rRNA approach. Collected Karish samples reflected their inferior quality containing high counts of coliform, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts and molds (5.18, 2.51 and 4.95 Log10 CFU g-1 respectively). Employing the two antagonistic isolates enhanced both microbial quality and organoleptic properties. Results encourage recommending the two Lactobacilli strains as starter cultures for safe products avoiding human illness and economic losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Reproductive Traits of Different Androgenic Pepper Lines (Capsicum annuum L.)

Fidanka Trajkova, Liljana Koleva Gudeva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37324

The biology of pepper growth and development is strongly dependent on complex influence of environmental abiotic factors as light, temperature, air humidity and soil moisture. The presence and length of different pepper phenophases are variety characteristics, which they expressed as result of the development in specific agroecological conditions. In this study the vegetation period as earliness indicator of seven androgenic pepper lines derived from 3 different sweet pepper varieties was studied during four years experiment under greenhouse conditions. The studied androgenic pepper lines KK1 and KK2 were derived via androgenesis from the sweet pepper variety Kurtovska kapia (KKk), P3 and P4 from the variety Piran (Pk) and F5, F6 and F7 derived from the variety Feherozon (Fk). The length of the vegetation period of the seven androgenic lines was compared to the vegetation period of their parental genotypes, respectively. Based on estimated length of vegetation period the androgenic lines were grouped in two groups as early ripening pepper androgenic lines and late ripening pepper androgenic lines. Alongside, there is a significant and positive association of days to flowering and days to fruiting with days to horticultural and physiological fruit maturity.

These androgenic genotypes are valuable breeding resources for improvement of earliness of sweet pepper genotypes in order to fulfill the needs of pepper producers and consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Callus Induction from Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Seedlings and Leaves of Mature Tree

Brahim El Bouzdoudi, R. Saïdi, Z. Nejjar El Ansari, M. Bouras, A. Badoc, A. Lamarti

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37037

Callus induction was successfully carried out from several explants of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Callogenesis from the apex was tested on three different media containing Woody Plant Medium (WPM), Murashige and Skoog (MS) or Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) macronutrients supplemented with two different hormonal solutions: benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 4.44 µM alone, or 2.22 µM of BAP plus 5 µM of 2-naphthalineacetic acid (NAA). Primary callus formation was obtained on a medium containing 88% WPM macronutrients. Callus formation from other parts of the plant was as follows:

     −  Cotyledon embryos extracted from immature seeds (85% success rate on WPM medium, containing 4.44 µM BAP and 5 µM NAA);
     −  Cotyledon leaves taken from 7-day-old seedlings, obtained from in vitro germination of seeds (62% success rate on WPM medium, containing 4.44 µM BAP and 5 µM NAA);
     −  Hypocotyls taken from 7-day-old seedlings (55% success rate on WPM containing 2.22 µM BAP and 5 µM NAA);
     −  Differentiated leaves taken from mature tree (84% success rate on WPM medium, containing 4.44 µM of BA and 2.26 µM of NAA).

In general, production of primary calli and their growth after transplantation was better on WPM medium supplemented with 2.5 µM NAA and 2.22 µM BAP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Acute and Sub-acute Oral Toxicity Studies of Ethanol Extract of Tanacetum parthenium (L) Sch. Bip. Aerial Parts in Mice and Rats

Edwin Enciso-Roca, Enrique Javier Aguilar-Felices, Johnny Aldo Tinco-Jayo, Jorge Luis Arroyo-Acevedo, Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Cristian Aguilar-Carranza, Hugo Justil-Guerrero

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37326

Aims: Many herbal products could have serious side effects. This study aim is to evaluate the in vivo acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of ethanol extract of Tanacetum parthenium (L) Sch. Bip. in mice and rats.

Study Design: In acute study: a total of 10 female Balb/c mice (20-25 g) were divided into 2 groups (n=5) namely control and tested group which received ethanol extract of T. parthenium orally at dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight for 14 days via oral gavage meanwhile in sub-acute study a total of 30 female albino rats (140-160 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=10) namely control and tested groups which received an oral dose of ethanol extract of T. parthenium at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight respectively for 28 days via oral gavage.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Nacional San Cristobal de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru.

Methodology: Phytochemical screening was assessed by using chemical reactives. The oral acute toxicity was developed in rats and mice, according to the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Blood samples were collected at the end of experiment for evaluation of haematology and serum biochemistry. In addition, liver was collected for histopathological examination. The toxicity of the extract was evaluated by observing and evaluating the changes of haematology, serum biochemistry parameters and also histopathological changes of liver.

Results: Phytochemical study confirmed flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenes and steroid, alkaloids and saponins in ethanol extract of T. parthenium. In both acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies, there was no mortality as a sign of toxicity observed during the period of experiment. Haematology and serum biochemistry parameters did not show any significant changes compared with control group. Similarly, histopathological examination of liver revealed steatosis and inflammatory cells in liver.

Conclusion: Results indicated that the oral administration of T. parthenium at various doses had toxic effects on the liver tissues in the sub-acute toxicity study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Acacia senegal Extract against di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) Induced Hepato- and Neurotoxicity in Rats

Mohamed Mahmoud Seif, Omar Abdel-Hamed Ahmed-Farid, Wael Mahmoud Aboulthana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35608

Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) is an aromatic diester used to improve plasticity of industrial polymers. It exhibited adverse changes in both liver and brain. The current study was planned to evaluate efficiency of Acacia senegal extract to ameliorate against liver and brain toxicity induced by DEHP. In this study, markers of the serum hepatic functions were elevated significantly (P˂0.05) in the DEHP-treated group. In coincide with these results, the antioxidant enzymes declined significantly (P˂0.05) associated with elevation of the lipid peroxidation product (LPO) in liver of DEHP-treated group. Furthermore, DEHP caused decline in activity of the antioxidant enzymes associated with elevation of LPO level in brain tissue. In consistent with these results, DEHP caused elevation of excitatory amino acids with decrease of inhibitory amino acids and monoamines in that tissue. A. senegal extract showed ameliorative effect by restoring activities of the antioxidant enzymes to normalcy with reducing the LPO level in the both tissues.

The electrophoretic protein and lipoprotein patterns in liver tissue presented that the lowest similarity index (SI) values were noticed in the DEHP-treated group (66.67 and 71.43%, respectively). No changes detected in protein and lipoprotein patterns in brain tissue. DEHP caused electrophoretic quantitative mutagenicity by increasing quantity of the α-EST2 band in liver tissue. As regards β-EST enzyme in liver and brain tissues, DEHP caused qualitative mutagenicity leading to decreasing the SI % in liver and brain tissue (66.67 and 25%, respectively). Moreover, it induced cleavage of the genomic DNA in both tissues. A. Senegal extract increased the SI values by restoring the normal bands and hiding the abnormal ones and maintained integrity of the genomic DNA pattern in liver tissue.