Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Regeneration between Human Bone Marrow and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Treatment of Critical Size Bone Defect in Sprague Dawley Rats

Ismail Hadisoebroto Dilogo, Bagus Pramantha, Evelina Kodrat, Ria Anggraini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37318

Aims: This study was to investigate the difference of osteogenic capacity between BMSC and ASC by quantifying the expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 and BMP receptor (BMPR) II also the bone healing process by histomorphometry measurement.

Study Design: This study was experimental study on animal (Sprague Dawley Rat).

Place and Duration of Study: This study took place in Animal Laboratory of Indonesian Health Minister, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Stem Cell Unit, and Department of Anatomical Pathology Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, and also Primate Study Center of Bogor Institute of Agriculture.

Methodology: Eighteen Sprague dawley (SD) healthy rats were induced with 5 mm femoral bone defect, then divided into three equal groups (n=6) consist of Control, Implementation of 2x106 BMSC + 5 cc Hydroxypatite (HA), and Implementation of 2x106 ASC + 5cc HA. They were sacrificed after 2 weeks, then underwent histomorphometry assessment with Image-J. The measured paramater were total area of callus, % of osseous area, % of cartilage area, and % of fibrous area. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) measurement was assessed by staining intensity and immunoreactivity score (IRS).

Results: The BMSC group showed higher expression of BMPR II compare to others. The expression of BMPR II was analyzed statistically and showed significant result (P= .04) among groups with median 4.00 ± 2.75. Both BMSC and ASC group have significantly better bone healing process compared with control group (P= .001). There are no significant differences between ASC and BMSC measured in % total callus area (P= 1.00), %Osseous area (P= 1.00), %Cartilage area (P= .49) and %Fibrous area (P= .18).

Conclusion: ASC bone healing ability are similar to BMSC. BMP-2 and BMPR II are important but not sole contributing factor for bone healing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water on the Growth of Different Types of Propagation Stocks of Lippia multiflora Moldenke (Verbenaceae) Grown on Nursery in Toumodi, Central Region of Côte d'ivoire

M. P. Hien, E. F. Akassimadou, E. B. Bolou BI, J. B. D. Ettien, A. Yao-Kouame

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36930

Lippia multiflora is used for its therapeutic properties in spite of this it remains a wild plant and therefore runs a risk of extinction which would cause an imbalance of the ecosystem. For the effective domestication of this plant and becoming perennial, a better knowledge of its water needs is necessary. A study of a 5-level hydration treatment of water (I1, I2, I3, I4 and I5) on seeds (roots cutting (S1), stem cuttings (S2) and seeds (S3) of Lippia multiflora in nurseries, was conducted under shade for 2 months. The study aimed at evaluating the growth of this plant in central Côte d'Ivoire, precisely in Blé, 6 km from Toumodi, 180 km from Abidjan. The soil is of Ferralsol type, on a slope. The experimental design was a factorial block in 3 replications. Seed collection was carried out by plowing L. multiflora wild plants. Mature seeds were harvested from the plants. The nurseries were established by seeding in plastic bags. The germinated seedlings were split, one seedling per bag. The water needed was applied manually and by sprinkling every 2 days before 9 am, for 60 DAP.  Plant growth parameters (growth and survival rates, number of rejections, plant height, number of leaves produced, and leaf surface area) were assessed using either a meter rule, or numerically.
The results obtained show that the water supply has a significant influence on the growth of Lippia multiflora. The growth was observed for three days after planting (DAP) but this growth was effected between the seventh day and at the 30th DAP, whatever the water application. The seeds (S3) and roots cutting (S1) have a high evolution rate and survival (about 100 p.c.) with well-developed growth in all water intakes. Cuttings are lagging behind others as regard to evolution. Seeds can be ranked according to their death resistance and optimal growth as follows roots cutting (S1) - seeds (S3) - cuttings (S2).

Roots cutting (S1) or seeds (S3) are the main choice for planting Lippia multiflora. Cuttings require further investigation to complement our results. The optimal irrigation doses I3 (50 p.c. UR) and I4 (70 p.c. UR), which are very close to the easily usable soil water reserve (EUR), permit optimal growth for stumps S1 and S3 seeds of L. multiflora.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Lipid Peroxidation, Free Radical Scavengers and Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha in Serum of Wistar Rats with Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

M. H. Yeldu, S. Ishaq

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37150

Aim: To assess the changes in lipid peroxidation, free radical scavengers and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in serum of Wistar rats with induced thyroid dysfunction.

Study Design: An experimental animal study was conducted in which Wistar rats with induced thyroid dysfunction were studied.

Place and Duration of Study: Animal House, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto and Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between June, 2016 and December, 2016.

Methodology: Twenty-one (21) male Wistar rats weighing 140 - 180 grams were randomly divided into three groups. Therefore, each group consists of 7 rats. Euthyroid (control): untreated receiving daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% normal saline solution; hypothyroid:  treated with daily oral administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (5 mg/100 g) and hyperthyroid: treated with daily intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (0.1 µg/g). At the end of the 30 days treatment,  rats were fasted for 12 hours and blood samples were collected under chloroform anaesthesia for the estimation of serum total triidothyronine (tT3), total tetraiodothyronine (tT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumour necrosis-alpha (TNF-α) using standard techniques. The rats were then scarified by cervical decapitation and slices of liver tissue were made for histological examination.

Results: The result indicated that final body weight, and serum tT3, tT4, SOD, CAT and GPX were significantly (P<0.05; P< 0.001) lower in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats while, serum MDA and TNF-α were significantly (P<0.05; P< 0.001) higher in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid compared with euthyroid rats. Serum TSH was significantly (P< 0.001) higher in hypothyroid compared with euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats. Histological examination of the hepatocellular tissue of euthyroid rat revealed normochromic and normocytic cellular architecture. There was polymorphocytic infiltration with mild inflammation and hypochromatic liver in hypothyroid rats while, conspicuous infiltrations of polymorphs in all fields were observed in hyperthyroid rats.

Conclusion: In this study, serum MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, and SOD, CAT and GPX activities were lower in experimental hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. The result therefore suggests that a decreased antioxidant capacity coupled with increased oxidative stress and TNF-α may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic injury due to thyroid dysfunction and underscores the role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress associated with thyroid dysfunction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Environmental Stress on Nutrients of Typha domingensis Pers. Plant in Najaf, Iraq

Muthik A. Guda, J. I. Hakeem, Maytham M. Alabassi, B. A. Almayahi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37069

This study determined the natural and environmental characteristics of Baher Al-Najaf Depression (BAND) in Iraq and their effect on nutrients of Typha domingensis as responses to environmental stresses in 4 sites. Samples were collected monthly (February 2015 to January 2016). The environmental factors of water and sediment were included: Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Salinity, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Hardness (TH), Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP), Sulfate (SO42-), Potassium (K+1), Chloride (Cl-1), Sodium (Na1+), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The highest values of the environmental factors were found to be at autumn and summer whereas the lowest values were at winter and spring. Environmental factors were ordered significantly as follows: S2> S3> S4> S1. The studied factors of climate were air temperature, relative humidity, the intensity of solar radiation, precipitation rate and evaporation rate. This study has shown that climatic factors effected on water resources and salinity level in BAND. Ionic contents (Na+ and Cl-) were increased significantly whereas K+, TP, and TN were decreased with increasing levels of environmental stresses at each site along with the season. In general, the levels of nutrients (N and P) were ordered as follows: water <sediments < plants. This means that Typha domingensis have the ability the accumulation of nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiglycation, Antioxidant Properties of Coleus forskohlii ''Balady'' Leaves and Stem and their Antioxidant Enzyme Activities

Yaaser Q. Almulaiky, Abudukadeer Kuerban, Faisal Aqlan, Saeed Ahmed Alzahrani, Mohammed N. Baeshen, Mohamed Afifi, Ammar Alfarga, Waleed Al-Shawafi, Mohammed Alkhaled

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37619

Aims: In this study, the antiglycation and antioxidant potency of methanol (80%) extracts, as well as the antioxidant enzyme activities from both leaves and stem of Coleus forskohlii “balady”, were analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between February 2017 and July 2017.

Methodology: Antiglycation activity was evaluated by BSA-glucose glycation assay. The total phenolics, flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoid, lycopene content were estimated, and antioxidant activity was tested by the capacity to reduce ABTS reducing power assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, FRAP assay. Enzyme activities from both leaves and stem of Coleus forskohlii were tested for polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and catalase.

Results: Results indicated that methanolic extracts from leaves exhibited strong antiglycation and antioxidant activities than from stem. Among the enzymatic antioxidant properties, except for the activity of peroxidase, the activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in leaves than in stem.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the leaves contained significantly rich sources of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants can be used as a natural antioxidants.