Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Gas Exchange and Stomata Properties of Oil Palm Seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Progenies Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Hawa Z. E. Jaafar, Mohd Haniff Harun

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36488

Aims: An experiment was carried out to examine the impact of increased CO2 level on gas exchange characteristics and stomatal properties of three oil palm progenies (Deli URT, Deli Yangambi and Deli AVROS). The seedlings were exposed to three CO2 enrichment treatments: ambient CO2 (400 µL L-1), twice (800 µL L-1) and thrice ambient CO2 (1200 µL L-1) for six days a week for three months.

Study Design: The experiment used a 3x3 Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in factorial split plot arrangement with the CO2 levels as the main plot and progenies as the sub plot replicated three times. Each treatment contained 10 seedlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Malaysian Palm Oil Board, (MPOB) Headquarters, between January to March 2009.

Methodology: Carbon dioxide at 99.8% purity was provided from a high pressure CO2 cylinder and injected through a pressure regulator into fully sealed growth compartments. The flow of CO2 in the chamber was automatically controlled by a CO2 P.P.M. Controller ™ (R and M Supply Inc. USA). Seedlings were exposed to elevated CO2 for 2 hours per day from 0800 in the morning to 1000 continuously for six days every week. The leaf gas exchange was measured using a closed system, infra-red gas analyzer LICOR 6400 Portable Photosynthesis System (IRGA: LICOR Inc. Nebraska, USA). The net photosynthesis rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomata conductance (gs) and intercellular CO2 (Ci) were simultaneously recorded. Stomata densities were examined by means of peel surface imprints made using clear nail varnish (cellulose acetate). Before peeling off, the layers with the impression imprinted were then placed on 1 mm2 graduated slide. All stomata were counted in six field to give a mean value for each sample.

Results: Significant interactions between CO2 and progenies for gas exchange attributes were observed except for stomata density. Increased CO2 significantly (p≤0.05) affected net photosynthesis (A), stomata conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE), intercellular CO2concentration (Ci), adaxial, abaxial and total stomata density. As CO2 concentration increased, A, and WUE increased. It was also observed that stomata conductance and transpiration rate reduced and could be explained by stomata closure and declining stomata densities (abaxial, adaxial, total) under elevated CO2. The decreased stomata density (pores per mm2) was likely due to greater leaf expansion as showed by increased in total leaf area per seedling.

Conclusion: Results showed that the increase in WUE was due more to an increase in net photosynthesis (A) than to a reduced transpiration rate (E). The experiment showed there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) between 800 and 1200 µL L-1 CO2 treatments in any of the variables measured.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Trends and Multi-Scale Breeding Habitat Analysis for the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli National Park, North-Eastern Greece

Konstantinos Poirazidis, Vasileios Bontzorlos

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37663

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess Black stork (Ciconia nigra) population trends and breeding habitat preferences in two habitat scales, in the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli (Dadia NP), in north-eastern Greece. Dadia NP is a renowned European biodiversity hot-spot (N 40° 59' to N 41° 15', E 26° 19' to E 26° 36').

Study Design: The Black stork breeding population was monitored under the Systematic Raptor Monitoring Scheme (SRM), which was established in the area by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Greece.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Dadia NP with annual monitoring efforts from 2001 until 2006, and once again in 2012.

Methodology: Twenty-four vantage points and ten road transects were selected throughout the entire study area. All Black stork individuals were surveyed and mapped during five months (March to July), for each monitoring year. Nesting habitat was measured in two scales. To assess the microhabitat, nesting-trees and vegetation variables were measured in a circular area of 0.1 ha (radius 17.85 m) around each nest. For the macro-habitat scale, a total of ten environmental variables were analyzed to model habitat suitability. MaxEnt software was used using high spatial resolution satellite data for each monitoring year.

Results: Black stork territories increased in Dadia NP from 24 pairs in 2001 to 33 pairs in 2012 demonstrating a total of 34.7% relative increase. According to Man Kendal tests, the species had a positive MK slope (1.7) which although not significant (tau = 0.69, P = 0.08), denoted a continuous increase. Increasing trends were corroborated by GAM models. The Black stork generally used large mature trees for nesting in sparse forests patches. The variable “elevation” demonstrated the most useful information for habitat modeling. During all monitoring years, Black stork showed a clear preference for the lowlands close to arable fields and wetlands which were used for foraging. Following the positive trend of Black stork population, the species’ suitable nesting habitat also extended from 48% in 2001 to 72% in 2012.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dissolving Ability of Commercialized White Tea on Chocolate-stained Fabric: A Potential Stain Remover

Azilea Ruth T. Santamaria, Reina Juno U. Sumatra, Joshua Cedric B. Taguinod, Jayme James Q. Tambaoan, Derick Erl P. Sumalapao

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37495

Tea, being the second most consumed beverage in the world, produces huge amount of waste when the used tea bags are readily discarded. This study determined the change in the relative absorbance of commercialized white tea infusions applied to chocolate-stained polyester and cotton fabrics using spectrophotometry. Results showed significantly higher relative stain removal efficiency of unused white tea infusions on chocolate-stained polyester and cotton fabrics possibly due to the solubilizing property of abundant catechins found in tea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Helminth Eggs on Raw Vegetables and Fruits Sold in Selected Markets in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

E. U. Amuta, V. U. Obisike, N. I. Acham

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35806

Humans, in their effort to be fed with a healthy diet, regularly consume raw (fresh) vegetables and fruits. Unfortunately, raw vegetables and fruits could serve as carriers of parasitic pathogens.

Aim: A study conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 aimed at determining the prevalence of parasitic helminth eggs on fresh vegetables and fruits sold in four major markets in Makurdi, Benue State.

Methods: A total of 131 samples of fresh vegetables and 59 samples of fresh fruits were examined for helminth eggs and larvae using standard methods. 

Results: Data showed prevalence of parasite eggs on vegetables as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (41.1%), hookworm (8.9%), Trichuris  spp (12.1%), Toxocara canis (13.7%), Taenia spp (13.7%),  Strongyloides stercoralis (7.3%) and Paramphistome (3.2%); while prevalence of parasite eggs on fruits was as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (38.7%), hookworm (8%), Trichuris spp (16%), Taenia spp (20%), Strongyloides stercoralis (89.3%) and Paramphistome (8%). A very strong positive correlation existed between the prevalence of parasitic helminth eggs in vegetables and that of fruits sold in Makurdi (‘r’ =0.9405). Pumpkin and water leaf were the most contaminated of among the vegetables sampled. Location related prevalence of parasite eggs on vegetables and fruits were not significant (P˃0.05).

Conclusion: The need to treat or thoroughly wash vegetables and fruits before consumption should not be overlooked.

Open Access Review Article

A Checklist of Diatom Species Reported from the Egyptian Mediterranean Lakes

Hanan M. Khairy, Kamal H. Shaltout, Mostafa M. El-Sheekh, Dorea I. Eassa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36894

A clear and concise checklist of the diatom species for the five Egyptian Mediterranean Lakes (Mariut, western section; Edku, Burullus, Manzala, Deltaic section and Bardawil, North Sinai) has yet been documented over 40 years of cited bibliography (also with their synonyms names). A total of 390 diatom species belong to 67 genera and 38 families have been recorded. The most recorded diatom genera were Nitzchia (Family: Bacillariaceae) and Navicula (Family: Naviculaceae). This diatom list has aided in identifying the original species, accepted names, synonyms and their habitat.