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Open Access Case study

Amelogenesis Imperfecta- Restoring the Confidence Back: A Case Report of Complete Oral Rehabilitation

A. P. Tikku, Anil Chandra, Promila Verma, Pragya ., Meena Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37740

Amelogenesis imperfecta is a term commonly used for a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions that affect the enamel formation and maturation. The biggest challenge in management of patients suffering with amelogenesis imperfecta is to restore esthetic, function and occlusal stability while conserving remaining tooth structure as much as possible. The goal of treatment should be to prolong the life of patient’s tooth and to prevent or delay the extraction and prosthetic replacement. This article presents a case of amelogenesis imperfecta cosmetically rehabilitated by direct composite veneers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Role of Aberrant DNA Promoter Methylation in Ovarian Cancer

Menha Swellam, Amal Ramadan, Magda Sayed Mahmoud, Maha Hashim, Mohamed Emam Sobeih

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37658

Background: Alteration of DNA methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes is associated with cancer development. We aimed to examine the diagnostic efficacy role of promoter methylated tumor suppressor genes: DAPK, OPCML and DLEC1 in ovarian cancer patients.

Materials and Methods: One hundred forty patients were enrolled (90 with epithelial ovarian cancer [EOC] while the remaining 50 were suffering from benign ovarian lesions. A group of healthy individuals (n=30) were included as control group. Methylation pattern were detected by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in serum samples from all individuals and protein based markers (CEA and CA125) were also estimated.

Results: Promoter methylation was significant for DAPK, OPCML and DLEC1 in EOC as compared to benign ones while all control cases were unmethylated. Significant relation was reported between DAPK, OPCML hypermethylation and FIGO stage, histopathological type and histological grade while DLEC1 hypermethylation was related to both FIGO stage (P= 0.03) and histological grading (P<0.0001). The correlation between promoter hypermethylation with CEA and CA125 showed significant differences.  Both sensitivities and specificities for promoter methylation of investigated tumor suppressor genes were superior to CEA and CA125 for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer and detection of early ovarian stages while they were compatible with CA125 in detection of EOC low grades.

Conclusion: Promoter methylation  of DAPK, OPCML and DLEC1 genes in circulating blood serves as promising diagnostic approach for early detection of EOC particularly those with early stages, low - grade tumors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Soil Properties on Wilt Incidence of Water Melon, Tomato and Marigold

Bhupendra Kumar Singh, Vinit Pratap Singh, Seweta Srivastava, Abhay Kumar Pandey, D. N. Shukla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34350

The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum affects a wide variety of hosts of any age by causing wilt disease. The aim of this present work was to evaluate the role of soil texture, moisture, pH, and temperature against the wilt incidence of watermelon, tomato and marigold. Observations revealed that sandy soil with supported highest wilt incidence of water melon, tomato and marigold compared to silt clay soil. It should be significantly highest infection was noticed at soil pH6 while pH9. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of soil moisture on occurrence of disease incidence, the pots containing water melon, tomato and marigold plants were irrigated after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days interval. It was reported that the plants which were irrigated after the interval of two days showed less disease incidence. It means that if we increase the interval of irrigation then the disease incidence will ultimately increased i.e., as same as shown by the interval of ten days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Diversity and Cytological Studies in Some Accessions of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Richard

Jacob O. Popoola, Adesola Adebambo, Samuel Ejoh, Paterne Agre, Adegoke E. Adegbite, Conrad A. Omonhinmin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36173

Aim: The objectives of this study were to characterize and evaluate intraspecific relationship among twenty-six accessions of Vigna vexillata (L.) and work out interrelationship among the morphological traits which could be used for genetic improvement of cowpea, V. unguiculata (L.) Walp.

Study Design: Field experiment was laid out in blocks of five buckets per accession in a row giving a total of 260 plants.

Place and Duration of Study: At the experimental field of the Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria, during the dry planting season (September – December, 2012).

Methodology: A total of 26 traits comprising 18 quantitative and 8 qualitative traits of the vegetative, floral, pod and seed were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA). Mitotic chromosome counts and meiotic behaviour were studied using root tip cells and pollen mother cells from young flower buds.

Results: The analysis of variance showed that all quantitative morphological characters were significantly different among the accessions (P = 0.01) except stipule length and width. There were significant correlations among characters such as calyx lobe length, standard petal length and width, peduncle length, days to 50% flowering, days to 50% pod maturity, pod length and width, number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, and 100-seed weight which could be used for breeding and conservation purposes. The first six principal components accounted for 89.84% of the total variance. The cluster analysis segregated the 26 accessions into three main clusters; cluster I (15 accessions), cluster II (10 accessions) and cluster III (1 accession). Mitotic chromosome counts of 2n = 22 were recorded for all the accessions and meiosis was observed to be normal with the formation of eleven bivalents (n = 11).

Conclusion: The intraspecific variabilities indicates plasticity in the genomes of the studied accessions, with high correlations among the morphological characters which are common to all accessions, thus justifying their grouping as a species. The morphological and reproductive attributes displayed by accessions TVnu93 and TVnu97 in terms of plant vigour, early flowering and pod maturity, longer pods and relatively high 100-seed weight made them good potential candidates in breeding for host plant resistance in cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica against Some Causative Agents of Urogenital Infections

Khalid Suliman Abd-Ulgadir, Hatil Hashim El-Kamali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36026

Aim: To assess and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of methanol and aqueous extracts derived from Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica against standard strains of microorganisms and clinical isolates.

Study Design: An experimental study which was carried out at the microbiology laboratory, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute (MAPRI), Khartoum, Sudan, during the period from September 2012 to March 2013.

Methodology: Leaves and barks methanol extracts of A. n. ssp. nilotica at concentration of 100 mg/ml were subjected to antimicrobial screening against six standard strains and 133 clinical isolates including bacterial and fungal species. Screening for antimicrobial activity of extracts, standard antibiotics and antifungal drug were detected by the agar well diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of tested extracts were determined using the broth dilution method. The MDIZs of clinical isolates were analyzed statistically using One- Way analysis of variance.

Results: The highest antibacterial activity of leaves and barks methanol extracts of A. n. ssp. nilotica on standard microorganisms was noted against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibition of 40 mm and the minimum activity was showed against Escherichia coli with zone of inhibition of 27 mm. The antifungal activity of leaves and barks methanol extracts was ranged from 23 mm to 24 mm. The MIC showed by the methanol leaves and barks extracts on standard bacterial strains was ranged from 3.125 mg/ml to 12.50 mg/ml and the MBC was ranged from 6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml. On the other hand, the MIC of methanol leaves and barks extracts toward standard fungi was 6.25 mg/ml, while MFC was 12.50 mg/ml. Statistical analysis showed that, there are significant differences between effects of methanol and aqueous extracts of A. n. ssp. nilotica on the standard microorganisms (P=.000). The highest MDIZ produced by leaves methanol extract was against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli which was 25.03 ±3.59 mm, while the lowest MDIZ was obtained by Klebsiella pnuemoniae which was 22.67±7.83 mm. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed higher MDIZ toward barks methanol extract which was 25.71±1.98 mm, while the lowest MDIZ for the same extract was revealed by Enterococcus spp. which was 22.82±7.85 mm. There is highly statistical significant differences between the effect of leaves and barks methanol extracts and Gentamicin 20 µg/ml on the clinical isolates (= .000). The MIC exhibited by methanol leaves and barks extracts on the bacterial isolates was ranged from 3.125 mg/ml to 12.50 mg/ml, the MBC was ranged from 6.25 mg/ml to 25 mg/ml. The MIC of methanol leaves and barks extracts toward Candida albicans was 6.25 mg/ml, whereas the MFC was 12.50 mg/ml.

Conclusion: Methanol extracts of leaves and barks of A. n. ssp. nilotica were found to be effective against both standard microorganisms and clinical isolates.