Open Access Original Research Article

Cadmium Induced Toxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Culture and Its Amelioration by Vitamin C

Ambar Pathan, Ankit Nariya, Naumita Shah, Alpesh Patel, Shiva Chettiar, Devendrasinh Jhala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37837

Introduction: Cadmium is a ubiquitous and toxic environmental pollutant increasing worldwide due to high consumption in various industries. At the cellular level, cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. In contrast to cadmium, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a powerful reducing agent known to capable of rapidly scavenging several reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Aim: Hence, the present work aimed to investigate the cadmium chloride (Low dose-10-6 M; Mid dose-10-5 M; High dose-10-4 M) induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human peripheral blood lymphocyte culture (PBLC) of healthy individuals (n=10) and its amelioration by vitamin C (10-5 M). The study was divided in various groups consisting of control, vitamin C, cadmium alone, cadmium with vitamin C and ethyl methanesulfonate as positive control.

Results: After genotoxicity indices and free radical toxicity parameters evaluated, results showed alteration in free radical toxicity indices and genotoxic indices in cadmium exposed cultures. Although vitamin C co-exposure revealed protective effects against genotoxicity by scavenging free radicals and balancing the activity of antioxidant defense system with decreasing in level of lipid peroxidation.

Conclusion: Vitamin C led to significant decrease in cadmium induced toxicity and substantial amelioration was observed in all studied parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Library Materials and Human Health: Vulnerability and Preservative Measures

Patrick Omoregie Isibor, Philomina Abieyuwa Mamudu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36605

This manuscript documents a study on the materials and users of selected libraries in Nigeria, with a view to providing vital information on the effects of library-associated organisms on the library materials, and the health of people in its proximity. The study evaluated the modes of action of library-associated biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors, stated the impacts of the activities of the organism(s) on library materials and users, and investigated the prevalent environmental factors necessary for the well-being of the organisms. The modes of action of the non-living degradation agents were also analyzed and preventive measures were implemented accordingly. Non-biodegradable library materials made from synthetic or inorganic sources might be a degradation-free option but on the other hand manufacturing of synthetic products would aggravate environmental pollution challenges. Organisms in the library depend on the ambient conditions to thrive, therefore strategic regulation of the library environment is important. Safety of library users and library materials can be guaranteed by the recommended precautions which were based on the study of the organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Magnetotactic Characterization and Environmental Application P. aeruginosa kb1 Isolate

Hoda Kabary, Mohamed F. Eida, Magdy M. Attia, Neamat Awad, Saadia M. Easa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37737

Aims: The interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is rising in the recent years. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Kb1 isolated from Egyptian habitat found to synthesis intracellular magnetosomes. This work aimed at characterization of produces magnetosomes and prospective application of the magnetotactic P. aeruginosa.

Methodology: The Kb1 isolate was grow in a batch experiment for three days. The synthesis of magnetosomes was confirmed by TEM microscope. The produced MNP were extracted, purified and characterized. The ability of P. aeruginosa Kb1 to remove heavy metals from its solutions was examined as well.

Results: The biosynthesis of mature magnetosomes, quasi-spherical or cubical in shape and 30- 70 nm in size, was affirmed after 72 h. The produced particles were crystals and displayed a super paramagnetic behaviour. Elemental analysis of the extracted MNP produced by P. aeruginosa revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, iron and chloride. This result indicates that the composition of the produced magnetosomes is Fe3O4 mainly while the finding of high carbon level could be refer the protein coat surrounding the magnetosomes. The FTIR spectrum analysis reveled the detection of Fe-O group which point to magnetite as the main MNP. The existence of H-O group, N-H group, C-H, C=C and C-C groups prove presence of the protein coat. Furthermore, magnetotactic P. aeruginosa was able to remove 99.4% and 70% of Cd2 and Pb2 at initial concentration of 4 ppm although it survived at high concentrations (up to 8 ppm) of each.

Conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Kb1 is a promising candidate for magnetic nanoparticles production and heavy metal removal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomic Composition and Diversity of Phytoplankton Community in Kpassa Reservoir (Northen Benin)

Ousmane T. Boukari, Youssouf Abou, Moctar L. Bawa, Daouda Mama

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37544

Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the taxonomic composition and the diversity of phytoplankton community in Kpassa reservoir.

Place and Duration of Study: The investigation occurred in Kpassa reservoir at 6 stations from August 2014 to May 2016.

Methodology: Microscopic observations and identification keys allowed to index phytoplankton taxa. Diversity was evaluated using species richness index (d), Shannon-Weiner index (Hs) and species equitability index (J). Means ± standard deviation, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene test were performed using SPSS 16.0.

Results: Current study recorded 52 phytoplankton taxa grouped as Conjugatophyceae (18 taxa), Diatomophyceae (16 taxa), Euglenophyceae (8 taxa), Cyanophyceae (5 taxa), Chlorophyceae (3 taxa), Dinophyceae (1 taxa) and Xanthophyceae (1 taxa). The highest abundance of phytoplankton (25828 ± 4642 individuals/mL) was recorded in January 2016 (dry season) with the arrival of the cold wind called Harmattan. High values of species richness index ranged from 1,71 to 2,67 at stations St1 and St2 while high values of diversity index varied between 2,16 and 2,98 bits/individuals at stations St1 and St6 and high values of equitability index ranged from 0,50 to 0,64 at stations St1 and St5 during rainy season. . Differences in the phytoplankton abundance, species richness index, Shannon-Weiner index and species equitability index are significant between seasons (p = .00; p = .00; p = .00; p = .00) but the differences between sampling sites are not significant (p = .76; p = .98; p = .97; p = .96).

Conclusion: Diatomophyceae predominance suggests organic pollution and high enriched water of the reservoir. Phytoplankton abundance is influenced by temperature but further work is needed to confirm the link. Same to silica which was also find to be on the basis of high phytoplankton abundance. Phytoplankton abundance is likely directly dependent of Diatomophyceae abundance. Rainy season represents the stability period of the phytoplankton community in Kpassa reservoir. Station St1 close to raw water pumping point of the National Company of Benin Water is the most stable site. Low values of species richness indicate a degraded water quality of the reservoir. Low values of diversity and evenness index reveal also a eutrophic state of the reservoir. Agricultural, pastorals, washing and crockery activities undertaken in the reservoir basin may be the principal cause of the deterioration of the reservoir water quality. The presence of aquatic plants was also found to induce organic pollution. Kpassa reservoir is horizontally homogene. A couple of sites are sufficient to horizontally monitor the reservoir status.

Open Access Review Article

Current Clinical Status of Osteopathy: Study Based on Retrospective Evidences of Six Years, A Systemic Review

Rizwan Ahmad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37675

Background: Osteopathy is widely used as an alternative, manual and drug-free system for treating various non-specific low back pains and musculoskeletal disorders throughout the world. However, the clinical effects of osteopathy are still debatable.

Aims: This particular study is aimed to focus the most up-to-date and current clinical trials in osteopathy and to compare its effectiveness in treating various musculoskeletal and low back pain conditions in which various challenges and negative evaluations are witnessed from various researchers and authors.

Materials and Methods: Literatures are investigated from 2012-2017. All the articles, with clinically trialed human subjects, were searched from the available data bases of Google scholar, Scopus, Springer Link, science direct and Sci Finder etc. by using the keywords randomly. For e.g.-Osteopathy cases, Clinical trials about osteopathy, Clinical status of osteopathy, Randomized controlled trials, Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), Clinical evidences in osteopathy and osteopathic treatment in diseases etc. are the following key words of search.

Results: 36 clinical trials were found, where different osteopathic manipulative techniques (OMT) were applied for the patients’ treatment. The clinical trials were complained mostly with suffering of pain due to non-specific conditions such as, musculoskeletal disorders, lower back pain, migraine, cystic fibrosis and irritable bowel syndrome, amongst the patients like pregnant women, children, young and old people women with urinary tract infections, ectopic pregnancies, and stress. The overall outcome for these clinical trials was effective and positive that improve the patients’ conditions.

Conclusion: An improvement in osteopathy curricula, training programs, residential training venture, as well as patient-centered-treatment can enhance osteopathy healthcare zone.