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Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Reaction of Erythrocytes’ Microrheological Properties on Hypodynamia in Persons of the Second Mature Age

N. V. Vorobyeva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37718

Introduction: Lasting absence of regular physical activity can negatively influence many physiological and morphological indices of a human body. Physiology is deeply interested in peculiarities of erythrocytes’ rheological characteristics in conditions of hypodynamia as they mostly determine the processes of microcirculation and metabolism in tissues. Detection of their peculiarities in persons with low physical activity can help to study the mechanisms of development and progression of numerous dysfunctions in able-bodied persons who neglect physical activity.

Aim: The Aim is to estimate erythrocytes’ microrheological properties in persons of the second mature age who avoid regular physical activity within lifetime.

Materials and Methods of Investigation: There were taken 45 healthy persons of both sexes of the second mature age (23 men and 22 women, mean age 44.9±2.2 years) into the study. They consciously avoided regular physical activity within lifetime. The 1st control group was composed of 42 persons of both sexes of the same age who attended the section of athletics thrice a week for not less than 10 years. Each training lasted not less than 1.5 hours. The 2nd control group was composed of 46 persons who daily walked not less than 6 km during the last 10 years. We applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation.

Results: The examined persons with low physical activity were noted to have strengthening of lipids’ peroxidation. The quantity of acylhydroperoxides in their plasma surpassed the values in the 1st control group by 40.6%, the values in the 2nd control group – by 38.1%. It took place against the background of weakening of plasma antioxidant activity in them by 18.5% in comparison with the 1st control group, in comparison with the second control group – by 16.9%. Blood of the examined persons with hypodynamia was noted to have some increase of thromboxane B2 level by 28.5% in comparison with the 1st control group, in comparison with the 2nd control group – by 26.3%. At the same time, the level of 6-keto-prostaglandin F in their blood was lowered by 14.4% in comparison with the 1st control group, in comparison with the 2nd control group – by 13.6%. In persons who avoided physical activity it was accompanied by content lowering of summary quantity of nitric oxide metabolites in plasma (by 19.2% in comparison with the 1st control group and by 14.7% in comparison with the 2nd control group). Erythrocytes’ membranes of persons with hypodynamia were noted to have the rise of cholesterol level by 13.8% in comparison with the 1st control group and by 12.6% in comparison with the 2nd control group. In their erythrocytes it was accompanied by acylhydroperoxides’ rise (by 29.6% in comparison with the 1st control group and by 28.3% in comparison with the 2nd control group). The examined persons with low physical activity were noted to have some lowering of erythrocytes-discocytes’ percentage in blood by 12.2% (in comparison with the 1st control group) and by 11.2% (in comparison with the 2nd control group). The quantity of reversibly and irreversibly modified erythrocytes’ forms in blood of persons from the group of observation was increased by more than 39.0% and in 2.3 times, respectively, in comparison with both control groups. At the same time, the examined persons who avoided regular physical activity, were found to have strengthening of erythrocytes’ aggregative properties. It was pointed by the index increase of erythrocytes’ summary involvement into aggregates by 29.2% and 26.8%, and quantity rise of these aggregates by 36.7% and 32.2%, in comparison with the levels in the 1st and 2nd control groups.

Conclusion: Persons of the second mature age who avoided regular physical activity within lifetime, are characterized by strengthening of lipids’ peroxidation processes in plasma and erythrocytes. It is accompanied by worsening of erythrocytes’ microrheological properties in them. Given changes can negatively influence the processes of microcirculation and worsen the internals’ trophism. That’s why, in the course of future search of the variants of physical activity increase for the second mature age persons it seems to be rather important to determine the variants of regular physical activity which can optimize erythrocytes’ microrheological properties rather quickly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Osteogenic Potential of Zirconium Enriched Bioglass on Differentiated Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells and Healing of Tibia Rabbit Defect

Zeinab A. Salem, Eman E. A. Mohammed, Khaled R. Gaber, Hanan H. Beherei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36586

Aims: The regeneration prospects of human bone seem to be confined due to different systemic and environmental conditions that may affect many patients. This work aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenic potential of the prepared novel nano-bioactive glass including zirconium (NZBG) in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

Study Design: The novel nano-bioactive glass (NZBG) was fabricated by sol- gel rout for the development of bone tissue replacement.

Place and Duration of Study: NZBG: Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine Dept. (Cairo University), Medical molecular genetics Dept. (National Research Centre (NRC), Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine Dept. (National Research Center) and Ceramics Dept., Biomaterials group (National Research Center) between June 2015 and July 2017.

Methodology: The novel nano-bioactive glass (NZBG) was fabricated by sol- gel rout for the development of bone tissue replacement. The prepared nano-bioactive glass (NZBG) was characterized by Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) before the in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The in-vitro evaluation of nano-bioactive glass NZBG was obtained through seeding human osteogenic cells from amniotic fluid derived stem cells on NZBG disks in culture for different time periods, 7 and 21days. The cultures were examined for mineralization by Alizarin Red Staining. The in-vitro mineralization was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy- X-ray microanalysis (SEM- EDAX) test.                                                                   

The in-vivo evaluation was done on thirty adult rabbits weighing between 2 kg and 2.5 kg. Two holes in each tibia, with a diameter of 2 mm were prepared. One of them was left without treatment as control group and the other was filled with NZBG bioactive glass. The animals were euthanized after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The defects were examined histologically by H&E, histochemically by Masson's trichrome stain and histomorphometrically.

Results: The in-vitro examination showed the enhanced osteoblastic proliferation over the NZBG

bioactive glass disks and clusters of bone like apatite mineralization in multilayer arrangements that increased by time. While the in-vivo study demonstrated well and proper healing of the defect filled with NZBG bioactive glass regarding the bone quality and quantity in comparison to the control group.

Conclusion: An enhanced biocompatibility and faster osteogenesis with the prepared NZBG bioactive glass. This is meaning the prediction good potential applications to bone regeneration medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Enrichment in the Awareness of Zoo Visitors and the General Public

Gardiánová Ivana, Hartl Martin, Štrachová Jitka

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37018

Aim: A questionnaire was designed to determine if the general public and zoo visitors are aware of environmental enrichment and its types, whether they have noticed enrichment of different types in zoo enclosures and exhibits, and how the respondents appreciate such enrichment.

Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared with 19 questions about enrichment awareness, types of enrichment, use of enrichment types, and appreciation of enrichment. Another 4 questions were about the respondents themselves. The respondents were questioned directly at two zoos (zoo visitors) and in two cities (general public). The respondents were selected randomly. A total of 450 respondents answered the questionnaire.

Results: The results of the questionnaire show that both zoo visitors and the general public have very low awareness of environmental enrichment. Only one-third of the 450 respondents knew what enrichment means. For more than half of the respondents, seeing the questionnaire was the first time they had heard about environmental enrichment. Some respondents had obtained information from television, radio, or the press. The most visible and most frequently used types of enrichment were physical, sensory, cognitive, and feeding. Physical enrichment was the most interesting for the public. In comparing enrichment by animal groups, enrichment for primates was rated as the best, whereas enrichment for felines was rated the poorest. The results indicate enrichment was regarded as positive for animals and interesting for the respondents.

Conclusion: Overall, the respondents rated environmental enrichment positively and the public had some sense of its existence. Although many people did not completely understand the term “enrichment,” they said they had seen it but did not recognize it for what it was, taking enrichment elements as just a part of the enclosure. Many respondents had also seen different versions of enrichment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Risk Factors Related to Severity and Mortality Due to Nosocomial Infections in Burn Patients of the Military Hospital Mohamed V, Rabat, Morocco

S. El Koraichi, A. Arfaoui, S. Kafsaoui, H. Janah, A. Sbayi, M. Mrabet, S. Siah, A. Quyou

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37192

Aim: The aim of this work is to analyze the risk factors related to the severity and the mortality due to nosocomial infections in burn patients.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study based on 212 burn patients who were infected inside the Burn Department of Mohammed V Instruction Military Hospital in Rabat, during the period from January 2004 to December 2012.

Results: The results show that infections with Staphylococcus spp are the most frequent in burn patients with 39% of all cases. The upper limbs represent more than half of the infected organs with 56.6% of cases.

The binary logistic regression showed that patients burnt at the abdomen display 9-fold higher risk of severity than patients burnt at other organs. On the other hand, head infection multiplies by 4 the severity of cases, compared to infection of other organs.

Furthermore, we demonstrated that infections with Acinetobacter baumannii and Proteus mirabilis were positively and significantly associated with the severity of burns with risks of 4.2 (p = 0.001) and 3.6 (p = 0.02) respectively.

The results also show that mortality does not depend on the infected organs but depends on the infection causing germs. Indeed, the infection with Acinetobacter baumannii was positively and significantly associated with death (OR = 3.3, p<0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, considered that nosocomial infections are the main cause of mortality in severe burn cases, all the means and strategies of fight should be oriented towards preventative measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Extract of Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan) Enhances Aggressiveness, but Not Libido, in Male Mice

Mohammad Kanedi, Sutyarso ., Hendri Busman, Nuning Nurcahyani, Wiwit Nurkhasanah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36975

Aims: Purwoceng herbs, Pimpinella pruatjan Molk., are widely marketed in Indonesia; it is believed that the plant was used by ancient Javanese kings as an aphrodisiac. Unfortunately, the claim that purwoceng is an effective aphrodisiac lacks support from biological and pharmacological studies. This study aimed to test whether purwoceng extract affects aggressiveness and sexual behaviour in mice.

Study Design: The study employed a completely randomised design using five concentration levels repeated three times.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, between December 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: Male mice (n = 20), aged 4 months and weighing 25–30 g, were divided into four groups. Group 1 comprised animals treated individually with 0.5% CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose; as controls). Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with 0.8 mg, 1.6 mg and 3.2 mg, respectively, of purwoceng extract suspended in 0.5% CMC. All treatments were administered orally with a total suspension volume of 0.5 ml per feed, once daily for 35 days.

Results: The results showed that the mice treated with purwoceng extract had a shortened latency of attacks and increased frequency of attacks. However, none of the sexual behaviour parameters of the mice, including courtship latency, mounting latency, mounting frequency and latency of copulation, were affected by the purwoceng extract.

Conclusion: It is suggested that ethanolic root extract of purwoceng has the potential to enhance aggressiveness, but not libido, in male mice.