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Open Access Minireview Article

Molecular Phylogeny of Yeasts from Palm Wine and Enological Potentials of the Drink

Ogueri Nwaiwu, Martin Itumoh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37748

Palm wine is consumed around the world and known by various names. Unlike many good quality traditional fermented food and drink in developing countries that have only been marketed in their local communities, palm wine has proved to be a commercial success in that it is now canned or bottled and marketed internationally. Despite these advances, the drink has not been subjected to current technology applied to wines from grapes to improve quality. This review highlights the evolutionary relationships between yeasts isolated from the drink in two continents and the enological potential of the drink. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (version 7) computer software to construct phylogenetic trees using 34 previously reported curated nucleotide sequences from the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA in yeasts isolated from the drink. We found that similar yeast species formed terminal taxa from a common node. However Pichia kudriavzevii species formed two distinct clades which suggest intra-species diversity. One Saccharomyces cerevisiae (accession No. HG425326) had a node distinct from other S. cerevisiae species indicating that the strain may belong to a different lineage. From literature, the enological compounds measured in different types of wines like ethyl acetate, oleic acid, ethanol, and acetic acid are present in palm wine. These primary and secondary metabolites of palm wine from different yeasts confirm the enological potentials of the drink even though higher alcohols and esters appear to be more in some wines when compared to palm wine. Future research may involve more holistic investigations that will elucidate the biochemical pathway of palm wine fermentation products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Approach to Subfertile Women Older than 38 Years-Old: Our Experience in Tunisia

Mohamed Basly, Radhouane Achour, Tarek Hmila, Ramzi Arfaoui, Mounir Chibani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37776

Objective: The practitioners of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) are increasingly confronted by a strong desire that is expressed by women aged 38 and over, for having children. Our objective is to analyze the reasons behind this increasing tendency for women to have children later in life, to study the clinico-biological characteristics of these patients, and the results of our center.

Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted at the Military Hospital of Tunis over a period of 7 years. We analyzed the sociodemographic profile, biological characteristics and data of each ART cycle in 32 couples in whom the female was 38 years of age or older.

Results: Several factors contribute to the increasing number of ARTs consultations in old ages: duration of study 07 years from January 2001 to January 2008, giving priority to career over other issues, socioeconomical stability, better control of contraception and late encounter with the partner, and false reassuring information on progress in ARTs. In our study, beyond the age of forty, the rates of pregnancy and childbirth declined markedly and were 43% and 6.25%, respectively. On the other hand, the rate of miscarriage increased (28.12% in our study). From the age of 40, most teams advocate for IVF at the outset. The ultrasound measurement of the antral follicular count makes it possible to assess the prognosis in terms of pregnancy and delivery rates.

Discussion and Conclusion: ARTs fail to ameliorate the decreased pregnancy rates and increased rates of spontaneous miscarriages associated with age. Therefore, patients should be informed earlier about the negative effects of age on their potential fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Lime Juice and Honey on Lipid Profile of Cholesterol Enriched Diet Fed Rat Model

A. Idoko, V. P. O. Ikpe, N. O. Nelson, J. U. Effiong, A. J. Alhassan, I. U. Muhammad, N. Abubakar, S. M. Abubakar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37213

Aims: To investigate the effects of lime juice and honey on lipid profile in albino wistar rats fed varying concentrations of cholesterol enriched diet.

Study Design: The study was designed in two phases; phase I and phase II.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences Caritas University, Enugu Nigeria, between May to September 2017.

Methodology: Twenty adult female rats were grouped into four groups of six rats each of test groups and two rats of Control group. In phase I, group I served as normal control (not fed with cholesterol enriched diet), groups II, III and IV were fed cholesterol enriched diet for one week. In phase II, GII – GIV rats were divided into 3 sub groups of 2 rats each and administered various dosage of lime juice alone, honey alone and mixture of lime and honey based on body weight.

Results: In phase I, a significant (p<0.05) increase was observed in control group compared to test group especially for TAG and TC in a pattern of higher enriched diet dependency, down the group while for LDL and HDL, the pattern was altered in GII. In phase II, administration of lime alone result in significant decrease (p<0.05) of LDL, TAG and TC and a significant increase (p<0.05) in HDL compared to phase I. Administration of honey alone lead to a significant decrease (p<0.05) in LDL and a corresponding increase (p<0.05) in HDL, TC and TAG compared to phase I. administration of mixture of honey and lime juice result in significant increase (p<0.05) in HDL in GII and  decrease (p<0.05) in LDL, TC and TAG compared to phase I.

Conclusion: The observed potential of lime juice and honey in reducing LDL and raising HDL (anti- inflammatory effect) could be due to the presence of antioxidants and beneficial phytochemical.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Occlusal Forces and Amplitude of Mandibular Movement in Children Based on the Need for Orthodontic Treatment

Nicolly Parente Ribeiro Frota, Marcelo Palinkas, Lígia Maria Napolitano Gonçalves, Bárbara de Lima Lucas, Evandro Marianetti Fioco, Leonardo Giovannetti Palinkas, Kranya Victoria Díaz-Serrano, Isabela Hallak Regalo, Selma Siéssere, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37898

This study analyzed the occlusal forces at the maxillo-mandibular interface and the mandibular mobility in children with and without the need for orthodontic treatment. Ninety children were divided into the following three groups based on the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-DHC): those with no need for orthodontic treatment ([NNG]; mean age 8.00 (SD: 0.43) years; n = 26), those with small malocclusions and slight need for orthodontic treatment ([SNG] mean age 8.89 (SD:0.43) years; n = 28), and those with moderate malocclusions and need for orthodontic treatment ([MNG]; mean age 8.44 (SD:0.22) years; n = 36). The T-Scan® III Occlusal Analysis system was used to evaluate the occlusal forces (%) during contact between the maxilla and the mandible (right and left side). Normal and maximum voluntary opening range and mandibular border movements (right laterality, left laterality and protrusion) were measured using a millimeter ruler. Data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Bonferroni test, P ≤ .05). It was verified that MNG had lower occlusal forces compared to NNG and SNG, with respect to the maxilla/mandible (right and left side), with no significant difference, and greater amplitude of mouth opening and mandibular jaw movements with significant difference in normal mouth opening between SNG and MNG (P = .04). Children with a moderate need for orthodontic treatment presented functional changes in the stomatognathic system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic and Bio- fertilizers Improve Vegetative Characteristics and Nutrition Status of Young Pomegranate Trees (Punica granatum L.)

O. A. Amin, Enas A. M. Ali, Eman A. A. Abd El-Moneim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38002

This investigation was conducted during 2014 & 2015 on pomegranates young trees cv. 116 grown in sandy soil, irrigated by drip irrigation, at the farm of National Research Center located at El-Nobaria District, El-Behaira Governorate. This study aimed to improve both vegetative characteristics and nutrition status of pomegranate by using different sources of fertilizers (organic and Bio-fertilizers). In this respect organic N and natural raw mineral rocky materials of PK mixtures were used at concentration of (500, 1000.1500 and 2000 g/plant) individual or in combination with bio- NPK mixture. Vegetative growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, shoots length, no. of shoots/plant, no. of leaves/shoot and leaf area) as well as mineral composition (N, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn content) and total chlorophyll were determined. Result showed that, mixing between organic and bio-fertilizers (organic N and PK raw mineral rocky materials at 2000 g plus NPK bio-fertilizations mixture at 300 ml/ plant) resulted in the greatest improvement of all the studied growth parameters. A promotive effect was noticed in term of mineral composition as well as total chlorophyll for pomegranates young trees treated with mixed organic (NPK at 2000 g/plant) and bio-fertilizers (NPK at 300 ml/ plant).