Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity of Adenia cissampeloides in Farmed African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

P. B. Ekpo, U. U. Uno, C. M. Okolo, R. B. Agu, C. F. Onwudike

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38114

The study evaluated acute toxicity of Adenia cissampeloides leaf extract on early life stages of farmed African catfish. 160 fingerlings were divided into four groups using a completely randomized design in a factorial layout and were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 mg/L of the extract for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively while the control animals were kept without any treatment. The percentage mortality rate and acute – lethal toxicity (LC50) were determined for the different durations of exposure. Results obtained indicated a significant dose – dependent increase in mortality in groups of animals treated with the extract of the plant whereas no mortality was recorded in the control group. Moreover, the duration of exposure also affected the mortality rate, with the highest percentage of mortality observed in groups of animals exposed the extract for 96 h. The LC50 for the Adenia cissampeloides extract to 96 h exposure was 42.38 mg/L with lower and upper confidence limits of 22.20 and 80.88 mg/L. Therefore, the study shows that Adenia cissampeloides extract has acute toxic effects on early life stages of farmed African catfish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ozonation and Microwave Treatments as New Pest Management Methods for Grain Crop Cleaning and Disinfection

Daria Osintseva, Evgeny Osintsev, Maksim Rebezov, Lubov Prokhasko, Saule Seilgazina, Saypitin Kurmanbayev, Zhanat Nurzhumanova, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, Vladimir Voytsekhovskiy, Nikolai Maksimiuk, Rustem Zalilov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37741

This article shows how high-intensity electric fields are effective in grain disinfection and cleaning. The use of high-intensity electric fields for influencing biological matters opens the prospect for the use of electro-technology in biotechnology, agro-industrial production, medicine and other branches of the national economy. The authors found that the efficiency of disinfection is determined by the duration, intensity and sequence of external physical influences. The parameters were identified, whose effects are destructive for insect cells and safe for grain cells. The longer the exposure time, the effectiveness of disinfection is greater. A 100% lethal effect of all types of insects occurred already at 30 seconds, which indicates a 25% microwave exposure time reduction. In addition, the study shows the function of changes in separation angles of grain from the surface of the crown type electric separator drum, thereby confirming the possibility of implementing electro-technologies in cleaning.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antithrombotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Ocimum basilicum L.

Abudukadeer Kuerban, Yaaser Q. Almulaiky, Ryan A. Sheikh, Saeed Ahmed Alzahrani, Hasan A. Al-Talhi, Md. Nasrullah, Said Salama Moselhy, Khalid Omar Abulnaja

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38047

Aims: In this study, the antithrombotic activity of ethanolic extract from Ocimum basilicum L. was investigated on mice. The active component of Ocimum basilicum L. was extracted in 40% ethanol by Soxhlet extractor.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, between February, 2009 and July, 2009.

Methodology: The crude extract was gavaged to mice in different concentration (100mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, and 400 mg/ml), for 21 days, Salvia Tablets were used as a positive control. On the final day, 50 mg/kg carrageenan was injected intraperitoneally to induce blood coagulation. Fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were assayed.

Results: Results showed that the content of mice FDPs significantly(P<0. 05)increased in the 200 mg/ml dose group and 400mg/ml dose group compared to the control group. This was dose-dependent.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L can activate the fibrinolytic system so as to stimulate Plasminogen enzyme into fibrinolytic enzyme to show antithrombotic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-diesel Production from Residual Sunflower Oil by Trans-esterification (Acidic, Alkaline Enzymatic) and Analysis of Some of Its Physico-chemical Parameters

D. Kavya, S. T. Girish

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36660

Aims: Recycling of residual sunflower oil for bio-diesel production, determination, and comparison with some of the physico-chemical parameters with the jatropha bio-diesel and ASTM D6751and EN 14214 standards.   

Study Design: Experimental observation with production of bio-diesel and characterization of some analytical parameters.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Jnana Barathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bengaluru 560056, July 2015 to June 2016, India.  

Methodology: Acidic, Alkaline and Enzymatic trans-esterification was carried out with the residual sunflower oil for bio-diesel production by using the catalysts: HCl, NaOH and immobilized lipase enzyme (Hi-media RM1265) respectively. Some physico-chemical parameters of bio-diesel obtained in these processes were compared with the jatropha bio-diesel and ASTM, EN standards. The efficiency of the bio-diesel of the residual sunflower oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR).

Results: The bio-diesel produced from residual sunflower oil by three different processes was analyzed for physico-chemical parameters: Density, Viscosity, Acid value, Cetane number, Iodine value and Flash point. By comparing these parameters with referral jatropha bio-diesel and ASTM D6751, PS121, EN 14214. The Cetane number (CN) responsible for auto-ignition of the sunflower bio-diesel was found to be more than 50 CN when compared with the jatropha bio-diesel (CN=47-50). The efficiency of the bio-diesel was assessed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. This showed that alkaline method was more effective when compared to the acidic and enzymatic methods in terms of more fatty acid ester formation.

Conclusion: The study parameters of produced bio-diesel from residual sunflower oil evinced suitability for recycling purpose. Alkaline trans-esterification method for bio-diesel production was cost effective and efficient as per Fatty Acid Methylesters content (FAMEs). Hence, it lays a foundation for the further research to utilize residual sunflower oil as an alternative fuel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction between Phytoplankton and Zooplankton in Some Freshwater Bodies in Relation to Some Ecological Factors in Taif, KSA

Montaser M. S. Hassan, Ahmed A. Issa, A. M. Ebied

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38041

Two water bodies in Taif city, Wadi Al-Arj and Saiysad, were investigated between December and February (wet season) and June to August, 2016 (Dry season) to investigate the community structure of fresh water phytoplankton and zooplankton and the influence of water quality and their impact on community structure. Physico-chemical variables such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, hardness, pH, Alkalinity, reactive phosphate and Nitrate were measured. A total of 36 species of phytoplankton belonging to five taxa were identified in ascending order as follows: Xanthophycea (0-7.1 cell*105/L), Euglenophyceae (0-29.1 cell*105/L) Bacillariophyceae (13-58.9 cells*105/L), Cyanophyceae (18.6-45.1 cells*105/L) and Chlorophyceae (6-52.9 cell*105/L) in five stations. 37 zooplankton species were recorded in the 5 sites; the community was comprised of five groups, Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda, Protozoa and meroplankton. Rotifera was the most dominant group in all sites. The highest zooplankton density was recorded in sites 5 and 1 respectively. However site 3 (sewage water) was the lowest.

In general, cyanobacteria were the abundant especially in station 3 in dry season and the lowest zooplankton density was in the same site.