Open Access Original Research Article

Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Growing Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Sun-dried Mango (Mangifera spp) Kernel Meal as a Replacement for Maize

F. B. Abang, O. K. Oko, J. T. Yelwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33119

A study using complete randomized design (CRD) was carried out to assess the effect of Sun-dried Mango Kernel Meal (SMKM) on the carcass and organs characteristics of growing Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and forty four unsexed Japanese quails of about three weeks old were randomly selected and grouped into three treatments containing SMKM that replaced maize at 0%, 25% and 50% (TI, TII and TIII respectively) in properly compounded experimental diets. Each treatment was replicated thrice with sixteen (16) quails per replicate. The results of this study showed that SMKM did not influence the terminal live weights, carcass, dressed and neck weights of quails. In terms of organ weights, it was observed that SMKM affected the lungs, heart and kidney weights significantly (P<0.05) across treatments. The relative organs weights showed significant (P<0.05) differences in heart, intestine, lungs and kidney weights but the reverse revealed with the gizzard and liver weights. However, the relative weights of drum stick, back and breast muscles were significantly (P<0.05) different across treatments. It is concluded that sun-dried mango kernel meal could replace maize up to 50% in quails’ diets, however, choice cut-part of quails were compromised.!

Open Access Original Research Article

Monosodium Glutamate Induced Haematological Alterations in Female Swiss Albino Mice Mus musculus

Tabassum Zafar, Vinoy K. Shrivastava

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36399

Aims: The sodium salt of most abundant naturally occurring amino acid glutamic acid is a popular flavour enhancer used to generate savoury or umami taste in a variety of foods. Apart from various health implications, high doses of MSG are widely used in a variety of commercial, processed and junk foods. The objective of the present study is to observe haematological alterations in female mice after long-term oral exposure of high dose of MSG.

Methodology: Female Swiss albino mice have been divided into two groups named control and treatment for each duration. Mice were given 4 gram/kg/day MSG by oral gavage for thirty and sixty days respectively and then sacrificed for the assessment of haematological parameters.

Results: High dose of MSG consumption contributes significantly (p value ≤ 0.05), in the reduction of hemoglobin percentage (p value<0.05) red blood cells (p value ≤ 0.01) white blood cells count (p value ≤ 0.05) Serum bilirubin concentrations (p value ≤ 0.05) were elevated significantly in MSG treated groups after thirty day treatment. Over the time period severity of the implications became more significant (p value ≤ 0.01).

Conclusions: MSG consumption could cause haematological alterations. Authors strongly discourage the prolonged use of high doses of monosodium glutamate for better maintenance of health of young female population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Seed of Onion: Effect of Micro and Macronutrients

Md. Monir Hossain, Montasir Ahmed, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Md. Shefat-Al-Maruf, Md. Nur-e-Nabi, Sujan Majumder, Md. Abdul Matin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38172

An experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during Robi season for determining the effect of micronutrients (Zn, B, and Mn) with different levels of macronutrients (NPKS fertilizers) on the quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) seed. The experiment was conducted with four levels of micronutrients viz. M1= Zn0B0Mn0 kg/ha, M2= Zn4B1Mn2 kg/ha, M3= Zn6B2Mn3 kg/ha and M4= Zn8B3Mn4 kg/ha and three doses of macronutrients viz. F1= N57P21K39S9 kg/ha, F2= N114P42K78S18 kg/ha and F3 =N171P63K117S27 kg/ha. Application of micronutrients and different doses of macronutrients increased plant height and number of leaves per plant at different growth stages, days required to first bolting, days required to first anthesis, the percentage of seed germination and seed vigor index. The highest percent germination of seeds (88.89%) and seed vigor index (2084.77) were recorded from M3 (Zn6B2Mn3 kg/ha) treatment and the lowest percent germination of seed (84.44%) and seed vigor index (1724.26) were observed in M1 (Zn0B0Mn0 kg/ha) treatment. The F2 (N114P42K78S18 kg/ha) treatment produced the highest percent germination of seed (90.67%) and seed vigor index (2258.20) and F1 (N57P21K39S9 kg/ha) treatment produced lowest (85.25% and 1721.05 respectively). Among the treatment combinations, M3F2 (Zn6B2Mn3 kg/ha × N114P42K78S18 kg/ha) produced the highest germination of seed (94.00%) and seed vigor index (2537.33) and M1F1 (Zn0B0Mn0 kg/ha × N57P21K39S9 kg/ha) produced the lowest germination of seed (82.67%) and seed vigor index (1488.66).

Open Access Original Research Article

Disruption of the Pp1-87B Gene Stimulates Tumor Formation in the Eye of Drosophila

Neima Koutb, A. Abou-Eisha, Adel E. El-Din, S. M. Kassem, Ekram S. Ahmad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37763

Protein phosphatases are a set of enzymes in charge of the dephosphorylation of several proteins and enzymes in a cell. Dephosphorylation process is essential for organizing a huge number of cellular actions. In Drosophila, protein phosphatase 1 at B87 (Pp1-87B) gene encodes one of the four variants of the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit and located on chromosome number three of Drosophila melanogaster. In this proposal, Pp1-87B mutation carrying lethal P-element insertions at a third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster was screened to study the possible of this gene as tumor suppressor gene. Disruption of the genetic sequence of Pp1-87B gene can produce mutant phenotypes in the large clone mosaic eyes. The mutant eyes have either a rough or cell lethal phenotype which indicates the disrupted gene is essential for proper eye development. Further analysis of the mechanism by which these disrupted gene function may offer useful information for cancer studies. To study if the obtained set of Drosophila P-element mutations have a tumorigenic activity or not, a set of somatic clonal analysis in the whole body or in eye system was used. Thus, the lethal mutations were screened in some mosaic assays using clonal analysis systems. Our results showed that the studied gene may have a significant role in eye development, cell proliferation and could be involved in photoreceptor cell patterning, as well as in ommatidial differentiation and apoptosis. This gene which was determined in the present study could have a real impact on cancer development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Potential of Grape Seed Proanthocyandins Extract against Glivec (Imatinib Mesylate) Induced Liver Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Male Rats

Nawal M. Al-Rasheed, Thanaa A. El-Masry, Ehab Tousson, Hanan M. Hassan, Areej Al-Ghadeer

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37766

Objectives: Glivec (Imatinib mesylate) an antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of many types of cancer. The current study examines the hepatoprotective potential of grape seed proanthocyandins extract (GSPE) against Glivec induced oxidative stress and toxicity in male albino rats.

Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male albino rats were equally divided into four groups; group 1 was control, group 2 was GSPE group (rats received orally GSPE by stomach tube {50 mg/kg BW/twice a week} for four week), group 3 was Glivec group (rats were injected intraperitoneally with Glivec {1 mg /kg B W/twice a week} for four weeks) and group 4 was rats treated with GSPE plus Glivec for four weeks.

Results: LD50 was calculated for Glivec in rats (estimated at 598 mg/kg), presenting confidence limits between 588 and 612 mg/kg body weight. A significant increase in the liver TBARS and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in Glivec group when compared with the control group. On the other hand; a significant decrease in the serum albumin, globulin, total protein, liver superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-trasferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in Glivec group when compared with the control group. Administration of GSPE with Glivec caused a protective and ameliorative effect against Glivec induced liver toxicity.

Conclusions: Treatment with GSPE has a promising role for ameliorating the oxidative stress and hepatic injury induced by Glivec.