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Open Access Original Research Article

Platelets’ Functional Peculiarities in Persons of the Second Mature Age with Spinal Column Osteochondrosis of the Second Degree

A. A. Bikbulatova, E. G. Andreeva, I. N. Medvedev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37795

Introduction: Many disturbances in a body are often accompanied by some disturbance of blood parameters. Regular blood elements and, especially, platelets can play a significant role in development of dystrophic changes in any tissues. Their aggregation can influence the processes of microcirculation and metabolism in all the internals and in musculoskeletal system. Clarification of characteristics of platelet aggregation in the second mature age which very often gives clinical manifestations of osteochondrosis can help in understanding the mechanisms of its progression and the methods of its correction in having this disturbance patients.

The Aim: is to estimate platelets’ aggregative activity in persons of the second mature age with spinal column osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree.

Materials and Methods of Research: In this study we enrolled 37 healthy persons of both sexes of the second mature age (men 35-60 years, women 35-55 years) and also 43 persons of both sexes of the same age with osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree. We applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation.

Results: Plasma of the examined persons with spinal column osteochondrosis had increased level of acylhydroperoxides by 38.4%. It was accompanied by the rise of P-selectin in their blood by 21.8% and platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 – by 23.9%. The level of cholesterol in platelets of persons with osteochondrosis was increased by 30.5% at lowering of common phospholipids by 19.7%. The quantity of acylhydroperoxides in their platelets was increased by 32.5%. At the same time, the persons with osteochondrosis were noted to have earlier development of platelets’ aggregation, than in the control: with collagen – by 37.4%, with ADP – by 32.3%, with rystomicin – by 42.2%.

Conclusion: The persons of the second mature age with spinal column osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree are noted to have strengthening of platelets’ aggregation. It can affect the processes of microcirculation and promote the progression of osteochondrosis. These changes should be taken into account in the search of options for osteochondrosis deceleration and reducing the severity of its manifestations by application the tested therapeutic approaches because of their effect on aggregation properties of platelets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Replacing Bone Ash with Fresh Water Snail (Pila ampullacea) Shell Ash on Haematological Indices of Weaner Rabbits

F. B. P. Abang, S. Attah, E. Zoo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/32376

Twenty five (25) mixed breed weaner rabbits were utilized in an 84 - day experiment to investigate the effect of replacing bone ash with fresh water snail (Pila ampullacea) shell ash on the haematological indices of weaner rabbits. Five experimental diets (T1 - T5) were formulated such that fresh water snail (Pila ampullacea) shell ash replaced bone ash at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% for treatments T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the five dietary treatments and replicated five times with one rabbit per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The study showed that the haematological parameters were not affected (P˃0.05) by the dietary treatments. This study revealed that fresh water snail (Pila ampullacea) shell ash can serve as a substitute for bone ash in weaner rabbits diet up to 100% without compromising their health status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Palynomorphs from Neogene Deposits in Calabar Flank: Implication for Paleoenvironmental Interpretation

Itam Asukwo Essien, Inyang David Okon, Tasie Leslie Bekweri, Akpan Etie Ben

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/27688

Palynological analysis of outcrops samples of Benin Formation in Southern sector of Calabar Flank, Nigeria yielded sixty seven(67) palynomorphs species, made up of thirty-eight (38) pollen species, sixteen(16) spores species, 2 species of algae with  fewer indeterminate dinoflagellate cyst and microforaminiferal wall-linings. The palynological assemblage consists of abundant polyporate (30%), tricolporates (34%), triletes (14%), monolete spores (19%) and dinocyst species and they yieled the following notable palynological taxa: Psilastephanocolporites laevigatus, Retricolporites irregularis, Zonocostite ramonae, Pachydermites diedeorixi, Echiperiporites estelae, Psilatricolporite crassus, Psilatricolporites sp, Retibrevitricolporites obodoensis, Ctenolophonidites costatus and Brevicolporites guinetii for the pollen. Spores (ferns and fungi) include Laevigatosporites discordatus, Acrostichumaureum, Verrucatosporites alienus, Polypoddiaceoisporites retirugatus, Magnastriatites howardi, Fusiformisporites sp and fungi spores. The quantitative analysis of the fossil assemblage, its composition leads to the understanding of the environment of deposition as is alluvial/fluvial and coastal settings characterized by freshwater swamp/rain forest and mangrove forest. This is correlated with warm, humid and high rainfall climate of tropical vegetation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Epichlorohydrin- Crosslinked Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana)-Derived Activated Carbon Chitosan Composite as Cr(VI) Bioadsorbent

Angelo Patrick R. Bautista, Derick Erl P. Sumalapao, Nelson R. Villarante

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38259

Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana) activated carbon chitosan composite crosslinked with epichlorohydrin was synthesized for batch adsorption of toxic Cr(VI) ion from an aqueous solution. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by instrumental techniques such as FTIR and SEM. The surface morphology of the adsorbent had a porous texture with round- and elliptical-shaped voids as adsorption sites for the adsorbate. Some functionalities including –OH and –NH2 groups were identified on the surfaces. The synthesized activated lumbang-biocharcoal chitosan composite crosslinked with epichlorohydrin adsorbent at the optimized conditions adsorbed 93% of Cr(VI) ion. The investigated adsorption phenomenon described a chemisorption process due to the functional groups identified and the high porosity of the adsorbent surfaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Chromolaena laevigata on Human Tumor Cell Lines

Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Jorge Luis Arroyo-Acevedo, Juan Rojas-Armas, Victor Chumpitaz-Cerrate, Linder Figueroa-Salvador, Edwin Enciso-Roca, Johnny Aldo Tinco-Jayo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37045

Aims: Cancer is the first cause of death in the Peruvian population; searching alternative treatments of medicinal plants constitute a promissory field to find new anticancer drugs. The main objective in this study was to evaluate the phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of Chromolaena laevigata (C. laevigata) on human tumor cell lines.

Study Design: The fresh leaves of C. laevigata were soaked with ethanol followed by phytochemical screening using standard methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica, Ica, Peru; Laboratory “Abraham Vaisberg Wolach”, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Methodology: Phytochemical screening was assessed by using chemical reactives. Total phenolic content (TPC) was developed using Folin Ciocalteu reactive and the antioxidant activity was determined against DPPH and ABTS radicals by spectrophotometry. The cytotoxic activity was determined on human tumor cell lines followed as: MCF-7, H-460, HT-29, M-14, K-562 and DU-145.

Results: Phytochemical study confirmed flavonoids and phenolic compounds in ethanol extract. TPC resulted 45.21 ± 3.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dried extract. The highest antioxidant extract for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging tests were IC50 = 11.66 ± 1.0 μg/mL, IC50= 12.45 ± 0.50 μg/mL respectively. Ethanolic extracts (μg/mL) showed a low cytotoxicity on human tumor cell lines (CI50 > 20 μg/mL) for DU-145, HT-29, MCF-7 and M-14. Whereas, for H-460, and K562 tumor cell lines showed high cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: In our findings, C. laevigata demonstrated a high antioxidant and total phenolic content. The ethanol extract exhibited better cytotoxic effect compared with 5-FU. Hence, This medicinal plant could be effective to prevent chronical diseases as cancer and oxidative stress disorders.