Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Charring Methods on Surface Characteristics and Sorption Properties of Rice Straw Derived Biochars

Dalia M. Mubarak

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38554

Rice straw derived biochars were prepared by two different charring methods, in order to investigate effect of the preparation procedures on the sorption efficacy toward heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

The preparations of the biochars were under limited oxygen conditions, including one step heating treatment at 450°C/60 min. (Char 450) and two steps heating treatment upto 700°C/60 min. (Char 700). Influences of the charring methods on the surface characteristics of the obtained biochars were examined via scanning electron microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The sorptive properties of Char 450 and Char 700 were evaluated according to their efficacy towards the removal of Cu2+ ions from the aqueous solutions. The sorption isotherms of Cu2+ onto the prepared biochars were analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir models. Kinetic studies were also carried out.

Enhancements of the porous structure and some elemental content were depicted in Char 700 compared with Char 450, indicating the remarkable effect of the charring methods on surface properties of biochars. Both sorbents were able to remove all the Cu2+ ions at low initial sorbate concentrations and within 15 min. of contacting time. Further increase of the sorbate initial concentrations, Char 700 exhibited higher sorption efficiency than Char 450, achieving 66 and 55 % removal percentages, respectively.

At 2.0x10-3 M initial Cu2+ concentration, two hours of contact time were enough for the sorption of 69 % of the total ions. Langmuir isotherm equation and pseudo second order kinetic models successfully describes the sorption of Cu2+ onto the studied sorbents. Chemisorptions processes were assumed to be the domain sorption mechanisms.

The study indicated the potential use of the rice straw derived biochar as low cost sorbent in the field of wastewater treatment, taken in consideration the role of preparation conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Various Solutions for Temporary Storage of Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Stanislaus Ivanovich Krishnanda, Raksheeth Agarwal, Oliver Emmanuel Yausep, Muthia Rizkita, Ria Angraeni, Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38233

Aims: To determine whether physiologic saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and high glucose Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM-HG) were suitable as temporary storage solution.

Study Design: In vitro experimental analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Stem Cell Medical Technology Integrated Service Unit, RSCM/Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, from August through December 2016.

Methodology: We did viability assessments at various time points, namely after 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours in the three storage solutions. For population doubling time (PDT) assessments the cells were re-cultured after various time points in the tested solutions. All viability and PDT assessments were done in four replications.  Furthermore, for all storage solutions, differences between the various time points in terms of viability and PDT were compared and tested by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results: Viability was >70% up to 72 hours in PBS and physiologic saline, and up to 96 hours in DMEM-HG. Decrease in viability began to be significant compared to initial viability after 6, 24, and 72 hours in PBS, physiologic saline, and DMEM-HG respectively. Increase in PDT began to be significant compared to initial PDT after 3, 6, and 24 hours in PBS, physiologic saline, and DMEM-HG respectively.  

Conclusion: For our UC-MSCs, DMEM-HG is the best temporary storage solution, and storage should not exceed 24 hours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response to F3 Selection for Grain Yield in Durum Wheat [Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. ssp. turgidum conv. durum (Desf.) Mac Key] under South Mediterranean Conditions

Zahira Laala, Amar Benmahammed, Abdelmalek Oulmi, Zine El Abidine Fellahi, Hamenna Bouzerzour

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37923

An experiment was carried out at the Field Crop Institute, Agricultural Research Station of Setif (ITGC-ARS, Setif, Algeria), to assess the response to early generation selection in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Results indicated the presence of sufficient variability to warrant selection. Correlation coefficients of biological yield, plant height, spike number, kernels per spike, harvest index and days to heading with grain yield were significant. Path analysis emphasized the direct and indirect effects of biomass yield, spike number and harvest index on grain yield, suggesting that F3-selection based on one or simultaneously on all these traits would result in significant direct and correlated responses. However, intergeneration correlation and parent-offspring regression coefficients predicted that F3-selection based on biomass yield, spike number, harvest index, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield will be ineffective while plant height and days to heading selection will be efficient. Direct and correlated responses to F3-selection for biomass yield, spike number, harvest index, 1000-kernel weight, plant height, days to heading and grain yield confirmed predictions drawn from intergeneration correlation and parent-offspring regression coefficients. Inefficiency of F3-selection was attributed to genotype x environment interaction. The overall results suggested that early generation selection should be restricted to plant height and days to heading while selection to improve grain yield directly or via related traits should be delayed to later advanced generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Flax Varieties for Drought Tolerance

Heba Amin Mahfouze, Sherin Amin Mahfouze, Magda Aly Mahmoud El-Enany, Mahmoud El-Sayed Ottai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38495

Introduction: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the ancient yields cultivated for dual purposes (oil and fibers). Drought stress plays an important role in the productivity of the flax crop in the world.

Methodology: A laboratory experiment on early seedling growth stage was conducted to evaluate the drought tolerance of Asile and Gentiana flax varieties. Three concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG10,000) 5, 10 and 15% were used as drought levels compared with the control (0 level). After ten days of cultivation, germination indices were recorded. 

Results: The germination percentage was decreased with the increasing of PEG10,000 in both varieties. Highly significant variance was shown in percentage of germination and shoot length between Gentiana and Asile flax varieties. SDS-PAGE banding patterns indicated that PEG10,000 induced the drought tolerant in the varieties which led to the appearance or disappearance of some polypeptides due to water deficit and depending on the flax variety. Isoenzyme activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) did not differ between control and drought stress conditions in Asile, but differed in Gentiana variety. However, the RAPD-PCR assay exhibited polymorphism between the stressed plants and control. A total number of 75 fragments were amplified by seven decamer primers ranged from 90 to 1400 bp. Forty-four alleles were monomorphic bands (58.67%), while thirty-one loci were polymorphic (41.33%).

Conclusion: The results showed that Asile (the Indian) variety was more tolerant to drought than Gentiana (the Romanian) variety which had the highest percentage of germination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Personality and Sociality in Captive Tigers (Panthera tigris)

Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Federica Paini, Carys Louisa Williams, Massimo Faustini, Silvia Michela Mazzola

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38122

Aims: In this study we assessed the personality and sociality of eight zoo tigers.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was conducted over five months at Le Cornelle Faunistic Park (Valbrembo, BG, Italy).

Methodology: A multifaceted approach of observer ratings (rating method) and keeper questionnaires (coding method) was used to produce personality profiles for each tiger. Focal animal behavioural observations allowed the production of time budgets and enclosure usage for each animal. Sociality was measured through Association Index, both for intraspecific (tiger-tiger) and interspecific (keeper-tiger) dyads. Keeper Association Index and eventual tiger affiliative behavior towards keepers was measured during indoor interactions in the morning and in the evening at lock up and feeding times.

Results: All the results outlined a distinct personality in each animal, different levels of intraspecific sociality and affiliative behavior towards each keeper.

Conclusions: We advocate that this deeper understanding of each animal’s personality and behavior can offer practical help to zoological institutions to facilitate daily husbandry, animal welfare, tailor training or enrichment and ultimately increase reproductive success.