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Open Access Original Research Article

The Viability of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium animalis in Chocolate Milk, and Evaluation of Its pH Changes and Sensory Properties during Storage

Reza Ghasemnezhad, Vadood Razavilar, Hadi Pourjafar, Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Khadijeh Ala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37885

Aims: The viability of encapsulated and free Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis bacteria in chocolate milk for the first time as well as the influence of the bacteria on acidification and sensory acceptability of the product at 5°C for 21 days.

Study Design:  Research study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, between October 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: The Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis were injected into chocolate milk in free and microencapsulated forms. Sodium alginate plus resistant starch and sodium alginate plus chitosan were used via extrusion method for microencapsulation. The changes in probiotic bacteria count and their sensory acceptability were evaluated at 5°C for 21 days.

Results: The chocolate milk containing microencapsulated bacteria had a slight decrease in pH compared with the products with free bacteria. Further, the rate of microencapsulated bacteria viability was high in comparison with free bacteria in all conditions (p<0.05). Also, a product with microencapsulated bacteria has a more desirable sensory properties compared with a product with free bacteria at 5°C for 21 days; hence, it has a higher acceptability.

Conclusion: Probiotic bacteria microencapsulation in the chocolate milk, as well as low temperature storage, can increase the viability of probiotics into product and postpone the fermentation process in chocolate milk. Based on the sensory evaluations and total acceptability scores, the chocolate milk containing microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei with an expiration of 6 days and containing Bifidobacterium animalis with an expiration of 10 days can be produced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing Sowing Date for French bean Varieties under Bangladesh Condition

F. M. Jamil Uddin, Md. Abul Kashem, A. K. M. Mominul Islam, Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38096

An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University to determine the optimum sowing date for selected French bean varieties under Bangladesh condition. The experiment consisted of two factors namely; (i) variety viz. BARI Jhar Sheem-1, BARI Jhar Sheem-2 and BARI Jhar Sheem-3, and (ii) sowing date viz. 5 November, 20 November and 5 December. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Variety and sowing date showed significant effect on most of the plant characters viz. plant height, leaf area plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, number of seeds plant-1, weight of seeds plant-1, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield and stover yield. The highest seed yield (0.66 t ha-1) was obtained from BARI Jhar Sheem-3 and the lowest (0.46 t ha-1) was obtained from both BARI Jhar Sheem-1 and BARI Jhar Sheem-2. The highest seed yield (0.65 t ha-1) was obtained from 20 November sowing and the lowest one (0.36 t ha-1) was obtained from 5 November sowing. The interaction between variety and sowing date had significant influence on the yield contributing characters and yield of French bean. Results showed that the yield contributing characters and yield of French bean varieties were increased with sowing on 20 November and decreased with very early or late sowing. BARI Jhar Sheem-3 produced the highest seed yield (0.76 t ha-1) when sown on 20 November compared to very early or late sowing condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Disentanglement of Staphylococcus aureus in Chicken by Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay

Ali S. K. Albadri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37023

This study is aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in the chicken using conventional methods (biochemical tests), latex agglutination, and Vitek Immuno Diagnostic Assay System (VIDAS) system. These methods are considered as the modern methods to proven technology for the detection of foodborne pathogens. In this study, 100 samples were collected from the supermarkets in Baghdad city. The isolated colonies were picked up by Chromogenic and Baird Parker Medium and transferred onto a fresh medium to ensure purity based on phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, AIP® Staph kit, and the detection of enterotoxin using VIDAS SETII. The results were showed that all samples were decontaminated by S. aureus and toxic. Toxin A, B, and C has high-frequency of 0.25-2.00 ng g-1, 1.00 ng g-1, and 0.25 ng g-1, respectively. The toxin (A) was found to be more than (104 – 105) CFU ml-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Water Management for Potato Production in Drought Prone Areas in Bangladesh

Md. Akhter-Ul-Alam, Zannatul Ferdous, Khairul Islam, Most. Ummay Salma Khatun, Md. Babul Akter, Ummay Kulsum Laily, Mazharul Anwar, Khakon Kumar Sarker

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37622

Water management practices are an essential component of modern intensive potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. A farmer’s field based experiment was conducted in Multi Location Testing (MLT) site, Khalashpir, Rangpur under On-Farm Research Division, Rangpur during two years of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 to find out the effect of irrigation scheduling with crop growth stages over conventional practice in potato. Four irrigation treatments were studied under the trial and the treatments were, I1= Farmers practice, I2= Irrigation at stolonization and tuberization stages, I3= Irrigation at stolonization and bulking stages and I4= Irrigation at stolonization, tuberization and bulking stages. The highest yield was recorded in I3 (23.11 tha-1 and 20.27 tha-1) whereas lowest was in I1 (19.11 tha-1 and 17.13 tha-1). The highest gross margin was recorded in I3 (BDT.74610 ha-1 and BDT. 68210 ha-1) and lowest was in I1 (BDT. 36660 ha-1 and BDT. 28060 ha-1). Water savings can also be attained by allowing higher soil water depletion toward the ripening period so that all available stored water in the root zone is used by the crop. This practice may also hasten maturity. Correct timing of irrigation may save 1 to 3 irrigation applications as well as also save the production cost of the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Stress Alleviation of Roselle Plant by Silicon Treatment Through Some Physiological and Biochemical Responses

E. F. Ali, F. A. S. Hassan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37670

A research trial was planned to find out the effect of water deficit and/or silicon (Si) foliar application on the growth, yield, sepal quality and some physiological characters of roselle plants. Under water stress treatment, the growth parameters (plant height, branch number, dry weight and leaf area) sepal yield and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced; however Si treatment ameliorated the negative effects of water stress and improved the growth even with non-stressed plants. The contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were significantly decreased in water stressed plants relative to plants grown under higher water levels. Si application increased the contents of N, P, K and Mg, while Ca content was decreased due to Si treatment in stressed or non-stressed plants. Water stress significantly decreased the total soluble solids and pH value however; Si application substantially alleviated this reduction. In contrast, the anthocyanin content was significantly increased due to water stress treatment. Otherwise, Si application increased anthocyanin content in stressed or non-stressed plants. Water stress significantly decreased the chlorophyll content and membrane stability index (MSI) compared with non-stressed plants. However, Si application had positive effects in this respect and alleviated the adverse effects of water stress. The total soluble sugars and proline content were significantly increased under water stress conditions and/or Si application. Water stress treatment promoted the activities of CAT, SOD and POD enzymes in roselle leaves however; Si application increased the activities of those enzymes except POD that decreased.