Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic and Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Peel and Seed of Diospyros blancoi

Jinnat Ruksana Setu, Ayesha Akhter, Ratna Rahman, Moriam Islam, Maviya Naznin Koly, Md. Shah Amran, Tahira Foyzun

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38478

The present study was aimed at investigating the phytoconstituents in order to correlate the folkloric claims with the bioactive compounds present in Diospyros blancoi. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Diospyros blancoi have also been evaluated. The crude methanolic extract of seeds (CMES) and peels (CMEP) and crude ethyl acetate extract of seeds (CEAES) and peels (CEAEP) of Diospyros blancoi were investigated for different phytochemical groups using specified methods. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by following total phenolic content test, total flavonoid content test, DPPH radical scavenging test, iron reducing ability test and total antioxidant activity determination test, and cytotoxic effect was evaluated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay procedures. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, triterpenes sterols, saponins, flavonoids, sugars etc. The extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. Phytochemical screening showed total phenolic contents were 357.76, 214.88, 185.296 and 408.192 µg of GAE/gm and flavonoid contents were 39.248, 175.248, 51.1616 and 113.861 µg of catechin equivalent /gm of CMES, CEAES, CMEP and CEAEP, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging study, IC50 values of CMES, CEAES, CMEP and CEAEP were 13, 37.5, 16.5 and 9.2 µg/mL, respectively, compared with the standard BHT with an IC50 value of 5.8 µg/mL which demonstrated that they had moderate free radical scavenging activity. The Iron reducing ability and the total antioxidant ability of CMES, CEAES, CMEP, CEAEP were moderate and these showed moderate cytotoxic activity in Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay study, the ED50 values of the CMES, CEAES, CMEP, CEAEP were 40, 20, 20 and 10, respectively, compared with the standard vincristine sulphate with an ED50 value of 1.04 mg/mL. It can be inferred that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds and peels of Diospyros blancoi were moderate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Establishment of Aseptic Culture in Pomegranate cv. Bhagwa

Prabhuling Guranna, Huchesh C. Hoolageri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38807

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an economically important fruit crop of arid and semiarid regions of the world. Micropropagation of pomegranate, have provided many advantages over the conventional methods of vegetative propagation. It ensures true to type of plants, uniform quality and rapid mass production of disease free planting materials with seasonal independency. The present study was carried out with the objective to standardize efficient and reproducible protocol for establishment of aseptic culture in pomegranate “Bhagwa”. Different explants, duration of mercuric chloride treatment and antioxidants were tried for culture initiation. Among the various explants, maximum aseptic culture (55.00%) establishment was obtained with double nodal explants containing third + fourth nodes. The effective surface sterilization with lowest contamination (15%) was achieved with HgCl2 (0.10%) for 3 minute. Lesser intensity of browning and higher culture establishment (54%) was observed with 2000 mg/l activated charcoal.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii: An Update Review

Bushra Hussain Shnawa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37086

Amoebiasis is the human infection with Entamoeba species, including E. histolytica, which is the causative agent of amoebic colitis, liver abscess, and rarely brain abscess; E. dispar, which is nonpathogenic; and E. moshkovskii, which causes diarrhea. The redefinition of E. histolytica, the  re-description of E. dispar, and the recent results of isolation of E. moshkovskii from patients have dramatically changed the understanding of the prevalence of Entamoeba species in the population specifically in developing countries. These investigations have motivated researchers to develop a new  diagnostic tools which are capable of differentiating the three species of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba encountered in clinical laboratories.

Recently several molecular diagnostic methods have been developed for distinguishing E. histolytica / E. dispar / E. moshkovskii complex in developed countries, including new commercial multiplex PCR panels which offer high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to detect mixed infections. Molecular techniques will play an important role in diagnosis, epidemiological surveillance and outbreak studies. Also it considered as new diagnostic reference standard. The objective of the current review is to highlight the techniques that exist for the identification of Entamoeba species which are available in the clinical diagnostic laboratories. Moreover, numbers of newly published researches related to the molecular diagnosis of Entamoeba species are reviewed. Also it represents updating of the knowledge about molecular diagnostic techniques of amoebiasis within the period from 2013-up to date.

Open Access Review Article

Chemicals with Mitochondrial Targets for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders

Edna Berzabá-Evoli, Juan Gabriel Tejas-Juárez, Nancy Patricia Gómez-Crisóstomo, Erick Natividad De la Cruz-Hernández, Eduardo Martínez-Abundis

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38094

Background: Mitochondria are undoubtedly key organelles for the cellular function as the main energy supplier, calcium buffer, and apoptosis mediator. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as a common characteristic in most neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., Alzheimer, Parkinson, and epilepsy. This knowledge has opened a new opportunity for the development of new drugs, testing of natural extracts and, finally, application of nanotechnology in search of beneficial effects on mitochondrial components.

Objective: To make a search in databases, and to analyze the latest research on mitochondrial-targeted pharmacological interventions for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Method: We searched the databases; focusing on the latest research reports  on the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders with mitochondrial targets, such as antioxidants, inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), drugs that modify the mitochondrial dynamics, as well as the promising application of nanotechnology in improving drug delivery to the central nervous system.

Results: We analyzed over 120 papers for this review. We found evidence of the successful treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in human and experimental models with natural and designed drugs targeting mitochondria. The structure and function is discussed.

Conclusion: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a promising target for pharmacological treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The development of powerful drugs with properties as antioxidants, mitochondrial dynamics and mPTP regulators or design of nanoparticles, all of them with the capacity to reach mitochondria in the central nervous system, preventing neurodegeneration, is becoming a key player in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Cronobacter sakazakii, a New Threat: Characteristic, Molecular Epidemiology and Virulence Factors

Afsaneh Mashoufi, Mohammad Hashemi, Kiarash Ghazvini, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan, Asma Afshari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37657

Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria that can cause different diseases through consumption of contaminated food. Cronobacter sakazakii is the most important species found in Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) and baby food. PIF is the most significant source of C. sakazakii which provides an appropriate environment for its growth and survival. Infant formula is heated during its production, although this amount of heating is not enough for sterilization and disinfection. C. sakazakii is considered a threat in all age groups. It may cause different illnesses such as meningitis, bacteraemia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in children. It may also cause infections in adults such as pneumonia septicemia, osteomyelitis, splenic abscesses, and wound infections. The mortality rate is high (40-80%) and the survivors suffer from severe neurological complications. Poor hygienic preparation of infant food at home or at hospitals has been reported as one of the main reasons of C. sakazakii infection. The gold standard based on FDA-recommended methods (Food and Drug Administration) for the isolation and identification of C. sakazakii obtained from powdered infant formula, is both time consuming and labor intensive.Since the rapid detection and diagnosis of this bacterium is important, new molecular methods are being used today. These methods have meaningful and significant advantages as compared to traditional methods on account of speed, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of C. sakazakii and its molecular identification and virulence genes.